Subtitled: The Resurrection, Our Only Hope Of Life After Death
William Robert West
Author of “The Rapture And Israel”
"The Wages Of Sin Death"
"The Wages Of Sin Eternal Life
With Torment In Hell"
An Immortal Soul And The Doctrine Of Hell
Is There A Soul In You That Will Live After You Are Dead?
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RESURRECTION OR IMMORTALITY
William Robert West
What do you believe about souls? There are many very different doctrines taught in the world today concerning souls that are believed to be in all humans. By most a soul is believed to be something that is wholly apart from the person it is in; it is viewed as something that is complete in its self without the person; it will live after the person it is in is dead; it is believed that a soul will exist forever without the person; it will never be dead and therefore a soul cannot be resurrected from the dead. It is believed that a soul must live someplace forever, and it will live either in Heaven or Hell even if there is no resurrection. The doctrine of unconditional immortality of a deathless soul being in a person and leaving that person at the death of the person makes it impossible for Christ to give life to that soul; if it had immortality it would already have life and could never not have life. All Christ could do is give it a reward or punish it.
(1). At the death of the person that bodiless, deathless soul that had been in a saved person will fly immediately to Heaven to the very presents of Jesus and God. Many believe souls of the dead are looking down on us, they watch over their loved ones on earth and can sometimes be seen by living persons.
(2). At the death of a lost person, a soul that was in him or her will immediately be carried to Hell where it will forever be alive, suffering and screaming, while it is being eternally tormented by God with no hope that God will ever stop tormenting it.
(3). At the death of most persons that are Catholic, souls that were in them goes immediately to Purgatory where souls will suffer unto souls have suffered enough to pay for the sins of the persons they were in, then these souls will be saved by their own suffering.
(4). In the Abraham’s bosom version souls that had been in the saved go immediately at death to be rewarded in Abraham’s bosom, the good side of hades, unto the coming of Christ while souls that were in the lost are tormented in the bad side of hades unto the coming of Christ; after the judgment these souls will be endlessly tormented by God in an endless burning Hell.
(5). A view of a soul now believe by some Protestants, called Rephaim, is that after the death of the person, a soul leaves the person and it is a shadowy something that has no substance, it is nothing more than mental thoughts without any kind of substance or body.
(6). Spiritualism. After the death of the person, the spirit becomes a ghost that sometimes haunt the house it was in, it is a ghastly spook that can sometimes be seen at night among the graves and tombstones in a cemetery. According to Spiritualism, these ghosts or spooks roam the earth and can and are seen by people, and even live in the house with people. The ghost that have left the persons they were dwelling in can come back and these ghost can do both good and evil to living persons that still have ghosts (souls) dwelling in them. Many who do not think of themselves as being a Spiritualist and even deny that they are a Spiritualist believe much of the Spiritualist belief; most funerals that I have I have attended the preacher has a soul that had been dwelling in the dead person dwelling in Heaven and it was looking down on the funeral of the dead person it had been freed from; have you ever been to a funeral where the preacher said a soul that had been in the dead person was alive in Hell and looking up from Hell at the person it had been in?
(7). The person, not a soul that had been in a person, sleeps from death unto the resurrection, the person is resurrected and judged, the person is given endless life or eternal punishment of death.
(8). There are many other beliefs about what a soul is and what a soul can and cannot do, far too many to list here.
Two of the views that are commonly believed about what will happen to souls that leave mankind after death are the subject of this book.
VIEW ONE: The belief that all have a “soul” that W. E. Vine says is nothing but “the immaterial, invisible part of man,” (“Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary Of Old And New Testament Words,” page 588) and Robert A. Morey says, that after the death of the body a soul will be nothing but “mental thoughts” (“Death And The Afterlife,” page 79). According to those that believe as he does, this nothing but thoughts is the only part of a person that will have eternal life in Heaven. This immaterial something that is nothing but mental thoughts is all of you that will be in Heaven or Hell; will the person (you) be gone and nothing but thoughts will be all that is left, then all of the “you” that you now know anything about will be forever be gone. Most that believe all are born with an immortal “soul” that is dwelling in them have only a vague unclear understanding or even no idea of what they believe this unknown immaterial something they believe to be in them really is, but “it” (not themselves) is what they believe must be saved, and only “it” will be in Heaven if they save “it,” or in Hell if they do not. The belief that everyone has an immaterial something in them and this something, whatever this nothing but “mental thoughts” could be, will live forever and cannot die makes it not possible for death to be the wages of sin. If a person has something in them that is deathless, it would not be subject to the wages of sin, which is death, and this deathless nothing could never ever be destroyed; this, whatever it is would be, is born with eternal life, and it could never die; therefore, it could not be resurrected from the dead.
This view has two major divisions.
(1). That there is a "soul" in each person that cannot ever die or be destroyed, but most of these immaterial, nothing but mental thoughts beings God will forever torment after the death of the person, It is strange to me that I can find no one that believes there is a soul that is in a person that knows what a soul is. They tell me what a soul is not, but not what they believe a soul to be; in the many books I have read, the nearest anyone has came is to say that after a soul departs from the person it was in is Vine’s definitions that it will be nothing but thoughts without any kind of substance or body.
(2). Universalism: that all mankind has a "soul" that cannot ever die or be destroyed, everyone has this something in them that will live forever, but it will be saved. If it (a immaterial bodiless beings) is not saved in this lifetime it will be saved after death.
VIEW TWO: The belief that the you (person you now are) will put on immortality at the resurrection, and it is you (not just some immaterial something that had been in you) that will live forever in Heaven; we, not an immaterial soul, is now in the image of Adam, we, not an immaterial soul, will have the image of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:49). The wages of sin is death, and after there resurrection and judgment the lost will die the second death, they do not now have immortality and never will be immortal; those who do not belong to Christ will forever be destroyed after their judgment.
Most Protestant Premillennialist believe the lost will be totally destroyed, but there are three Premillennial views that are common in Protestant churches on how or where the lost will be destroyed.
(1). A common Protestant Premillennialist belief is that the destruction of the lost will be on this earth and the saved will forever live on this earth; no person will ever be in Heaven. Many believe the Valley of Gehenna will be restored and the lost will literally be burn to ashes in it.
(2). Some Protestant Premillennialist believe that the saved will be with Christ in Heaven, not on earth after the thousand years, the second death will be the end of the lost, but they are not literally burned to ashes on this earth in the restored Valley of Gehenna.
(3). Some Protestant Premillennialist believe the wages of sin is eternal life with torment for souls that cannot die, which puts them in the camp of those that believe there will be endless life being torment for deathless souls that had been in unsaved persons, they do not believe death is the wages of sin.
If there is either a soul or a spirit in us that is now immortal and it can never die or be dead, how could there be a resurrection of the dead? Do you believe in the resurrection of the dead? If yes, what do you believe will be resurrected; will your dead body be raised from the dead, or do you believe as many that only a soul that they do not believe can ever be dead, but it is the only part of a person that will be raised from the dead? When I first begin this study I was surprised and made to tremble at how few believed in the resurrection, and how many there are that do not really know what they believe about it. Many believe some deathless something that they believe to be in themselves will instantly be transited from this world to Heaven or Hell at death without a resurrection, before the resurrection, before the Judgment Day, and before the second coming of Christ, but when they are asked what is the reason for the resurrection, they not only do not know, but have never really thought about it. Death is looked at as being a doorway to life in another form, that death is not really death, and there is nowhere in their thoughts or in their faith for a resurrection for their theology says no one is really dead. The resurrection has been removed from the faith of many by today's theology that says some immortal something that is believed to be in a person will go to Heaven at the moment of death. But is there any life after death before the second coming of Christ and the resurrection of the dead? Paul said it will be at the resurrection when, "This mortal must put on immortality," but if we have a soul that is now immortal, then what is it that is now mortal that will put on immortality at the resurrection?
What does the Bible say about an immortal soul and/or spirit? Together soul and spirit are used about 1,600 times in the Bible, but not one time is immortal ever used in the same verse with either one, “immortal soul or an immortal spirit,” “deathless or never dying soul or a never dying spirit” is not in the Bible, not even in the King James Version. Immortal and immortality is not in the Old Testament, the promise of immortality is given to no one. In the New Testament, immortal is used only one time, immortality is used six times, all six by Paul. What does he say?
1. "Now unto the King eternal, immortal" (1 Timothy 1:17).
2. Only God has immortality (1 Timothy 6:16).
3. Christ "abolished death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel" (2 Timothy 1:10).
4. "To them (Christians) that...seek for glory and honor and immortality" (Romans 2:7).
5. "This mortal must put on immortality" (1 Corinthians 15:53) at the resurrection.
6. "This mortal shall have put on immortality" (1 Corinthians 15:54) after the resurrection. This mortal person must put on immortality, not this soul that is already immortal must put on immortality.
Why are we to "seek for immortality" if we are born immortal? Why will we "put on immortality" if the only part of us that will ever be immortal has been immortal from birth (or as some believe - before birth)? The fact that a person must "seek for...immortality" and immortality must be "put on" at the resurrection is conclusive proof that a person does not now have immortality, nor does a person have some immaterial, immortal something in them that cannot die. If Romans 2:7 and 1 Corinthians 15:53 teaches nothing more, it teaches that no part of a person now possess immortality. Not one passage in the Bible says anyone is now immortal. The immortal soul theology is from pagan philosophy, if all have a deathless soul, and we are told that this deathless soul is the only thing that will ever be immortal, and it is already immortal, the resurrection is made to be useless.
Table of Contents
AN IMMORTAL SOUL
OR RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD
The Resurrection, Our Only Hope Of Life After Death
By William West
Chapter one: The nature of man - what is man?
Chapter two: Life or Death
Chapter three: The reinterpretations of the great doctrines of the Bible
Chapter four: From where came Hell, from man or God?
o Unquenchable fire
o Old Testament history of Gehenna
o Gehenna used by Christ on four occasions
o The vanishing Hell
o Twenty-nine plus version of Hell
o Seventeen plus Protestant versions of Hell
o Eight other versions of Hell
o Three Catholic versions of Hell
Chapter five: Sheol, Hades, and Tartarus
Chapter six: The thirty-one Hell passages
Chapter seven: A strange and unexplainable silence of the Old Testament on punishment and life after death, life, death, torment, destruction, destroy, perish, die, and end
Chapter eight: Figurative language, metaphors, and symbolical passage
o Part one: The rich man
o Part two: The destruction of Israel, Matthew 24
o A. D. 70 doctrine
o Day of the Lord
o Part three: The symbolic pictures in Revelation
o Part four: The forever and ever of the King James Version
Chapter nine: Universalist: The "age lasting" Hell
Chapter ten: The results of attributing evil Pagan teachings to God
Chapter eleven: Historical proof of the changing of the teaching of the Bible
What Is Man?
What is a man? Are all persons born with immortal souls in them, or do only the saved put on immortality at the resurrection? Is a person a three part being, an animal body with both a soul and a spirit that will live without the body? This is one of the most important questions of all time. It has more influence on our conception of our nature, our view of life in this world, and our view of life after death than any other question.
Soul in the Old Testament is translated from nehphesh, Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature” A study of the way it is translated in the King James and how other translation differ greatly from the King James reveals facts that are far different that the belief of most about what a soul is, and facts that most will find upsetting. Nehphesh is used in the Old Testament about 870 times and is translated soul only about 473 times in the King James, but in the New International Version (2010 updated version) only 72 out about 870 times it is used.
Of the 870 times Nehphesh is in the Bible, in the New International Version:
o Nehphesh is translated soul only 72 times.
o Nehphesh is not translated soul 798 times.
o Of the 473 times nehphesh is translated “soul” in the King James Version, it was removed 401 times in the New International Version.
Nehphesh is translated in the King James Version into about 40 words; one Hebrew word is translated (or mistranslated) into nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc. Of 870 times nehphesh is used in the Hebrew it was changed into many words by the translators of many versions as they chose to, and all choosing many times to translate it difference even in the same passage. By today’s meaning of “soul” and “life” they means two completely difference things, they are not synonymous.
In the King James Version Nehphesh is translated:
1. Soul about 473 times
2. Life about 122 times
3. Person about 26 times
4. Mind about 15 times
5. Heart about 15 times
6. Personal pronouns 44 + times - yourselves, themselves, her, me, he, his, himself
7. All others, about 200 times - man, creature, living being, fish, own, any, living thing, living creatures, lives, the dead, dead body, kills, slays, slay him, mortally, discontented, ghost, breath, will, appetite, hearty desire, desire, pleasure, lust, deadly. Can any word have this many totally difference meaning? If it did could anyone know which one was being used; it is evidence that the translators of the many translations did not.
In all 870 times that nehpheshs is used it is always associated with the activity of a living being, including dying, and it never implies anything about life after the death of the living being. None of the 870 times it is not an immortal, immaterial, inter something in a person that has no substance; souls (nehpheshs) are the living being (persons, animals, or any living thing) that can die, be killed, or is already dead; although it’s use is often hid from the English readers by the way it was translated or mistranslated.
Soul (nehphesh) as it is used in the Bible
(1) Genesis 1:20 "The moving creature that has life" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals, Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”). Footnote in the King James Version–"The moving creature that has soul." American Standard Version–"Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures" (nehpheshs-mortal beings).
If “soul” were an immortal "immaterial, invisible part of man" (W. E. Vine, Expository Dictionary Of Old And New Testament Words), why is this Hebrew word that is translated soul also translated "living creature" when it is speaking of animals in Genesis 1:21; 1:24; 2:19; 9:10; 9:12; 9:15; 9:16 when the same Hebrew word (nehphesh) is translated "living soul" in Genesis 2:7 when it is speaking of a person? According to those that believe there is an immortal soul in a person “living Creature” and “living soul” are completely difference beings. If this Hebrew word (nehphesh) were an immaterial, immortal part of a person, it would also be an immaterial, immortal part of animals.
(2) Genesis 1:21 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to all life in the water), "And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature (nehpheshs-mortal beings) that moves wherewith the water swarmed.”
(3) Genesis 1:24 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings), used referring to animals, all life on the land), "And God said, Let the earth bring forth living creatures (soul–nehphesh) after their kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth." In Genesis 1:21-24 every living thing on earth, whether in the water or on land, every thing that has life is a nehphesh, a living being.
o All sea life are nehpheshs, are living beings
o All land life are nehpheshs, are living beings
o And mankind are nehpheshs, are living beings
None of the three are inherent indestructible immortality beings; none have an immortal deathless “soul” dwelling in them.
(4) Genesis 1:30 "life" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals), "And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the heavens, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, wherein there is life" (nehpheshs-mortal beings); animals are "a living soul."
ALL FOUR TIMES THAT SOUL (nehphesh) IS USED IN GENESIS ONE IT IS USED REFERRING TO ANIMALS Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature, i.e. animal.” NOT TO A PERSON. ANIMALS WERE SOULS, LIVING BEINGS, BEFORE ANY MAN EXISTED; WHY DID THE TRANSLATORS DELIBERATELY HIDE THE FACT THAT IT IS THE SAME WORD THAT THEY SOMETIMES TRANSLATED SOUL?
o THEY TRANSLATED IT SOULS WHEN IT IS SPEAKING OF PEOPLE.
o THEY TRANSLATED IT LIVING CREATURES WHEN THE SAME WORD IS SPEAKING OF ANIMALS. How could the translators possibly know when the same word is speaking of mortal being and when it is speaking of immortal being? Just as “up” cannot mean “down,” “Mortal” cannot mean “Immortal.”
o Although it is clear that the translators attempted to hide this from their readers, every breathing creature has the same “soul” (nehphesh) that persons have.
"Then God said, 'Let the waters teem with swarms of living souls (nehpheshs-mortal beings), and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens.' And God created the great sea monsters, and every living soul (nehphesh-mortal beings) that moves, with which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind; and God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, 'Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.' And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day. Then God said, 'Let the earth bring forth living souls (nehpheshs-mortal beings) after their kind: cattle and creeping thing and beasts of the earth after their kind'; and it was so...and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, wherein there is life (nehpheshs-mortal beings) I have given every green herb for meat" (Genesis 1:20-30). “Living creatures" (nehpheshs-mortal beings) is used to describe all living things on earth, people, animals, birds, and fish, not eternal life or some immaterial invisible something that is in a person that is now eternal. If a person being a soul (nehphesh–a living being) makes that person be either immortal or in the image of God, then it makes animals, birds, and fish have a immortal soul in them and be in the image of God.
HENRY CONSTABLE, A. M.: “The Hebrew scholar knows that when Moses, in Genesis i. 20, 2, speaks of the nature of the lower order of animals, and when in Genesis ii, 7, he speaks of the nature of man, the inspired writer used the very same Hebrew terms of both one and the other. Each fish, and fowl, and creeping thing, and beast is called in the Hebrew a nephesh chajah as much as man who was given the rule over them. But this was in its apparent bearing wholly inconsistent with the philosophical ideas of the translators. They considered it dangerous that the similarity of description should appear in the English version, which Moses did not consider it dangerous to exhibit in the Hebrew original. Hence they must guard God’s Word from its supposed dangerous language by translating nephesh chajah very differently in the first chapter of Genesis, where it is applied to the lower creatures, from what they translated it in the second chapter, where it is applied to man…A gross, through unintentional fraud has been committed against the English reader. He is mislead in his searching of the Scriptures He is put on a false scent…Our English translators have supplied us with a commentary of their own instead of a translation, a comment we will here add, utterly alien to truth. But the result of this mistranslation is to lead astray the English reader who trusts in it. This is not the only instance which occurs of the thing in reference to this question. The same Hebrew word is throughout the Old Testament translated according as the Platonic notions of the translator led him to think it ought to be translated. Plato had a considerable hand in the translation of King James’ Bible. The Hebrew word nephesh is translated ‘creature,’ ‘soul’ ‘life’ &c., just as squared with the notions of men who carried Plato’s philosophy into their noble work of the translation of Scripture. We affirm that a grave injury has been done to the English reader, and a gross wrong to God’s word,” Page 31-32, “Hades or The Intermediate State of Man,” 1873, pubic domain.
(5) Genesis 2:7 "A living soul" (nehphesh–a living being, used referring to a person, Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”) The first time the King James Version translated nehphesh into "soul," most other translations did not agree with it, not even the New King James Version. "Man became a living being" New King James Version.
o “A living creature" (nehphesh-a mortal being) Genesis 1:20
o “A living creature" (nehphesh-a mortal being) Genesis 1:21
o “A living creature" (nehphesh-a mortal being) Genesis 1:24
o “Wherein there is life" (nehphesh-mortal being) Genesis 1:30
o “A living soul" (nehphesh) Genesis 2:7 "Man became a living being" New King James Version
o It is obvious that the translators of the King James Version translated according to a preconceived opinion in an attempt make persons have an immortal soul dwelling in them but keeps animals from also having souls that are dwelling in them; they made a distinction in animals and men, a distinction that dose not exist in the Hebrew Bible.
o Genesis 2:7 Man became:
o “A living soul" King James Version
o "A living being" New King James Version, American Standard Version, New American Standard Version, Revised Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version, New International Version, Amplified Version, The New American Bible.
o "A living person" New Century Version, The Living Bible, New Living Translation
o "A living creature" The Revised English Bible, Young's Literal Translation.
o "Life" Contemporary English Version
According to Genesis chapter one to three man was created a mortal living being just as the animals were. “Lest he stretch out his hand, and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever” (Genesis 3:22) is speaking of the physical person eating of the tree of life and living forever physically, it says nothing about a soul eating that was already deathless, already immortal that was dwelling in the mortal person eating of the tree of life and living forever. It was the physical person that would have eaten from a physical tree, and the physical person that would have physically lived forever.
THREE THINGS IN GENESIS 2:7
(1) MAN AND ANIMALS ARE MADE OF THE DUST OF THE EARTH. Paul quoted Genesis 2:7 showing that the “natural body” of Genesis 2:7 that was given to Adam and all mankind is not the “spiritual body” that will be given to the saved by Christ at the resurrection. “Howbeit that is not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; THEN that which is spiritual. The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man is of heaven. As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. As we have born the image of the earthly, we SHALL also bear the image of the heavenly” (1 Corinthians 15:46-49).
“In the day that YOU eat from it YOU shall surely die” (Genesis 2:17); for Adam to be told he would die is very different from being told that he would not die but would live forever in torment. In Genesis 3:19 there is a clear statement on what dies, “By the sweat of YOUR face YOU shall eat bread, till YOU return to the ground, because from it YOU were taken; for YOU are dust, and to dust YOU shall return,”(Also Genesis 18:27; Psalms103:14; Job10:9). “It is appointed for MEN to die once and after this comes judgment” (Hebrews 9:27). It is the PERSON that will die and the PERSON that will be resurrected from the dead, not a soul that cannot die; therefore, it could not be resurrected from the dead.
o It was Adam that was made from the dust.
o It was Adam that eat.
o It was Adam that was put out of the garden.
o It was Adam that was kept out of the garden.
o It was Adam that returned to dust.
o Not one word is said about a soul. If there were an immortal soul living in Adam, it suffered nothing from what Adam did.
DR. BERT THOMPSON, PH. D. says Genesis 2:7 is teaching that Adam was given “physical life.” Then said it is not teaching that Adam had instilled in him “an immortal nature.” “The Origin, Nature, and Destiny of the Soul,” page 19, Apologetics Press, Inc. 2001, church of Christ.
MIKE WILLIS said expositors have generally appealed to Genesis 2:7 to prove that all men are born with and now have immortal spirits. However, in 1 Corinthians 15:45, Paul has clearly expounded the meaning of the Hebrew words nehphesh, chayyah. "The living soul" of Genesis 2:7 is the natural body of this passage. He said this corresponds with the book of Genesis itself because the same construction is used in Genesis 1:24 to describe animals. When Moses recorded that God breathed into man's nostrils the breath of life and he became a living soul, what the writer of Genesis was saying was that the dust of the earth began to have animal life and does not prove that a person has an immortal spirit (soul); rather it states that a person has animal life. All men possess animal life through Adam. A Commentary On Paul's First Epistle To the Corinthians, page 578, 1979. For one who knows the Bible as he does, and believes a person now has an immortal soul, yet says, the living soul of Genesis 2:7 is the natural body, proves beyond doubt that a living soul is not an immortal something that is in of a person. “The first man Adam became a living soul…the first man is of the earth, earthy” (1 Corinthians 15:45-49).
GUY N. WOODS said the first time the word soul is used in Genesis 1:20 it is from the Hebrew nehphesh where it is assigned to fish, birds, and creeping things. He said it is clear that the soul in these passages does not refer to anything peculiar to the constitution of man, but it signifies, as its usage denotes, and the lexicons affirm, any creature that breathes. "What Is The Soul Of Man," Gospel Advocate, 1985, Number 21.
JOHN T. WILLIS: “The last two lines of verse 7 affirm that man’s life is God Given. God enables man to breathe, and thus to be alive, as he does all other creatures (see Gen. 7:22). Some have tried to justify a threefold division of man into flesh (or body), soul, and spirit from Genesis 2:7. They equate dust with flesh or body, breath with spirit, and insist that the last phrase of the verse must be translated as ‘a living soul.’ However, this understanding reads much more into the biblical text than it really says. (1) The Hebrew words for ‘flesh’ or ‘body’ and ‘spirit’ do not occur in this passage. (2) The Hebrew expression nephesh chayyah, which some insist on translating ‘a living soul,’ is used of fish and marine life in Genesis 1:20, 21; land animals in 1:24; beasts, birds, and reptiles in 1:30; and beasts and birds in 2:19. If ‘soul’ means the eternal part of man or the sum total of man’s ‘body’ and ‘spirit’ in Genesis 2:7, it must mean the eternal part of a fish or the sum total of a fish’s ‘body’ and ‘spirit’ in Genesis 1:20, 21; etc. (3) The flow of the context in Genesis 2:7 indicates that the word translated being in the RSV (nephesh) means the whole person. The author’s emphasis is on the gift of life.” The Living Word Commentary, “Genesis,” page 103-104, 1979, Sweet Publishing Company.
ADAM CLARKE: "Nephesh chayyah; a general term to express all creatures endued with animal life, in any of its infinitely varied gradations, from the half reasoning elephant down to the stupid potto, or lower still, to the polype, which seems equally to share the vegetable and animal life."
(2) MAN AND ANIMALS HAD THE BREATH OF LIFE (NESHAMAH) BREATHED INTO THEM.
o “Breathed into his nostrils the breath of life (nshahmah)” man (Genesis 2:7).
o “All in whose nostrils was the breath of life (nshahmah)” both man and animals have the same “breath of life (nshahmah)” (Genesis 7:22).
o “Saved alive nothing that breaths (nshahmah-breath of life)” both men and animals (Deuteronomy 20:16). “Breath of life” and “breaths” are the same in the Hebrew, both are translated from “nshahmah,” but who knows why the translators choose to make them different in the English Bible.
o “Utterly destroyed all that breaths (nshahmah-breath of life)” both men and animals (Joshua 10:40).
o “There was not any left to breaths (nshahmah-breath of life)” both men and animals (Joshua 11:11).
o “Neither left they any to breaths (nshahmah-breath of life)” both men and animals (Joshua 11:14).
o Does an immortal immaterial deathless soul or a spirit breathe, or die when breathing stops?
o “And the breath (nehphesh) of the Almighty gives me life” (Job 33:4).
o “And breathed into his nostrils the breath (nehphesh) of life” (Genesis 2:7).
o It is the breath (nehphesh) of life that God puts into the body that gives life, nehphesh is not an immortal deathless soul that has an endless life of it’s own.
The “breath of life” is as much the possession of all living creatures as it is the possession of man. The “breath of life” does not make any living creature immortal, not animals, not fish, or persons. All living being depend on this breath from God for life and all come to a complete end when the “breath of life” from God returns to God and if there were no resurrection no man would ever again have life.
Question: What effect did the “breath of life” in the nostrils of animals have on them? Most all would answer that it made them a living being, not an immortal deathless soul that will live after the death of the animals. Then what effect did the same “breath of life” have on mankind? It made them a living being just as it did animals, not having an immortal deathless something in them that animals do not have in them.
THE BREATH OF LIFE: Some have switched from a soul being an immortal something in a person to a spirit being the immortal something that is in a person that animals do not have. “Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathe into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.” The phrase “breath of life” that was breathed into man in Genesis 2:7 is the same Hebrew “breath of life” in Genesis 7:21-22 that is in the nostrils of birds, cattle, men and beasts; the “breath of life” in animals it is the same “breath of life” that is in persons. The “breath of life” (1) is not a immortal spirit, (2) is not a immortal soul that men now have in them but animals do not have it in them; it does not say that the “breath of life” God breathed into Adam was an immortal deathless spirit or a deathless soul breathed into him, and it does not say all persons now have the same deathless something in them; the breathless body that God made from the earth is what became a living breathing being when the “breath of life” was breathed into the breathless body. God did not tell Adam he had a body that was made from the earth, but the real Adam was made of something not from the earth.
(3) MAN AND ANIMALS BECAME “A LIVING BEING.” The body of dust + the breath of life = a living being-soul (a living being-nehphesh), Genesis 2:7. Although this passage is repeatedly used to prove that an immortal, deathless soul that was put in a person that was not put in animals, most translations, other than the King James, apply it to the living breathing being or person, not to an invisible, deathless, immaterial something that was put in a person. Adam being spoken of as a "living being" (nehphesh Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”) proves he was mortal, not immortal, just as all "living beings" (nehphesh) fish, birds, animals, are mortal, not immortal. How can this be one of the most used proof texts used to prove Adam was made with an immortal soul? If it proves Adam had an immortal soul, then it proves that fish have an immortal soul that cannot die.
Both “a living being” and “breath of life” are used by most that call themselves orthodox to prove mankind has an immortal soul that no animal has. Both mankind and all living being are “a living being” and both have the “breath of life,” but both can and do die. Having the “breath of life” does not make mankind or animals immortal.
It is importance to understand that it is being said by Moses that both animals and mankind ARE A SOUL (are living beings), not that animals or mankind HAVE A SOUL, do not have something in them that is immortal, invisible, a no substitute something in them that cannot die; there is a world of different in being a soul and an immortal soul being in you. Many assume, with much help from the translators and theology that Genesis is saying only mankind has souls, but animals do not. Because of what most have been taught, without realizing it they read into this that only mankind has a soul that is an immortal, invisible, no substitutes something that cannot die. This causes them to believe that only this immortal part of them self, whatever they think it is, will be saved (more on this at the end of this chapter). A soul is not a second unearthly being that exist within the earthly person any more than a soul is a second entity existing in beast. Both man and animals are souls, living beings. We are a soul, not have a soul. If we have a soul, have a living being in us, then we are one living being with another living being living in us. According to the doctrine that we have a soul living in us, a living being is living in another living being, and it is only this immortal deathless being that is us that will be saved or tormented forever is the foundation of many of the errors that have divided the churches. That we are a soul (we are a living being), not we have a soul (not have a living being living in us) is one of the most fundamental and most misunderstood teaching in the Bible.
(6) Genesis 2:19 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals), "Every beast...every bird...whatsoever the man called every living creature (nehpheshs-mortal beings), that was the name thereof"
(7) Genesis 9:4 "life" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals)
(8) Genesis 9:5 "lives" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to man)
(9) Genesis 9:5 "life" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to man)
(10) Genesis 9:10 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals)
(11) Genesis 9:12 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals)
(12) Genesis 9:15 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to man and animals)
(13) Genesis 9:16 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to man and animals)
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A bird’s eye view of the translation of nehphesh in the first nine chapters
1. “Moving creature that has life" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:20 – animals
2. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:21– animals
3. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:24 – animals
4. “Wherein there is life" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:30 – animals
5. “A living soul" (nehphesh) Genesis 2:7 – man
6. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 2:19 – animals
7. “Life" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:4 – animals
8. “Lives” (nehphesh) Genesis 9:5 – man
9. “Life" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:5 – man
10. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:10 – animals
11. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:12 – animals
12. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:15 – man and animals
13. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:16 – man and animals
This is an example of men attempting to cover up the truth when it is contradictory to their theology. It takes a lot of preconceived theology to make nehphesh be an immaterial invisible no substance soul existing in a man that is now immortal that is not in animals when it is not deliberately hid as it is in the King James Version. Moses applies nehphesh four times to lower creatures before he applied it to man, then immediately after he has applied it to man he again applied the same word to animals a fifth time with no hint that he uses the same word with a different meaning. When the translators give it a different meaning in only one of the six times it is used in the first two chapters of Genesis it is nothing more than deliberate change to add Plato’s immortal soul to God word.
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In Genesis 9:4-16 the same word is used for both man and animals seven times in the same passage.
To animals five times, to man four times.
o Three times to animals alone, translated (1) life, (2) creature, (3) creature
o Two times to animals and man together, translated (1) creature, (2) creature
o Two times to man alone, translated (1) lives, (2) life
"But flesh with the LIFE (#1. Nehphesh used referring to animals) thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall you not eat. And surely your blood, the blood of your LIVES (#2. nehphesh, used referring to man), will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it: and at the hand of men, even at the hand of every man's brother, will I require the LIFE (#3. nehphesh, used referring to man) of man. Whoso sheds man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed, for in the image of God made He men. And you, be you fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein. And God spoke unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, and I, behold, I establish my covenant with you and with your seed after you; and every LIVING CREATURE (#4. nehphesh, used referring to animals) that is with you, of the fowl, and the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you; from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth. And I will establish my covenant with you; neither shall the waters of a flood cut off all flesh be any more; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth. And God said, This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every LIVING CREATURE (#5. nehphesh, used referring to animals) that is with you, for perpetual generation: I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a token of a covenant between me and the earth. And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud: and I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every LIVING CREATURE (#6. nehphesh, used referring to man and animals) of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every LIVING CREATURE (#7. nehphesh, used referring to man and animals) of all flesh that is upon the earth."
All four times that soul (nehphesh) is used in Genesis 1; it is referring to animals, not to a person. IN TEN OF THE FIRST THIRTEEN TIMES SOUL (NEHPHESH) IS USED IT IS USED REFERRING TO ANIMALS, but the King James Version hides this by using different words, and most who read the King James Version never know it. Nehphesh is translated "soul" only one time of the first thirteen times it is used in the King James Version, but it is not translated "soul" in any of the first thirteen times it is used in the New King James Version, New American Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version, or New International Version. Mankind is the same soul (life–nehphesh) as the other "living creatures." He does not differ from other living creatures (soul–nehphesh) by having a soul (nehphesh) that cannot die. His dominion over other living creatures (other nehpheshs–souls) is not his nehphesh. In the first nine chapters of Genesis soul (nehphesh—Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”) is used more often with reference to animals than it is with reference to persons; it is the animal life, which both a person and animals have in common. How did the translators know when it changed to an invisible immortal part of a person, which animals do not have?
(14) Genesis 12:5 "And the people (nehphesh—"living beings") whom they had acquired" New King James Version ("soul" in King James Version.) Why were this translated people and not souls? They did not believe souls could be bought but people could be bought.
(15) Genesis 12:13 "That I (nehphesh—a "living being") may live because of you" New King James Version ("soul" in King James Version.) Do you wonder why this was translated, “That I may live” and not “That a soul may live?”
(16) Genesis 14:21 "Give me the persons (nehphesh—"living beings") and take the goods" King James Version. Can anyone give immortal souls to another person? Is there anyone that cannot see why nehphesh could not be translated “soul” in this passage?
(17) Genesis 17:14 "That person (nehphesh—a "living being") shall be cut off" New King James Version.
(18) Genesis 19:17 “Escape for your life” (nehphesh—a "living being") King James Version.
(19) Genesis 19:19 “Saving my life” (nehphesh—a "living being") King James Version.
In the first nineteen times nehphesh is used it is translated “soul.”
o Only three times in the King James Version
o None in the New King James Version
o None in the New American Standard Version
o None in the New Revised Standard Version
o None in the New International Version
(20) Genesis 19:20 "That my life (nehphesh—a "living being") may be saved" New American Standard Version (Translated soul for the fourth time in the King James Version, but only for the first time in the New King James Version). Do you wonder why the translators of the New King James Version did not think this word means “soul” in the nineteen times it was used before this, but changed their minds this time?
(21) Genesis 23:8 “If it be your mind” (nehphesh—a "living being") King James Version.
(22) Genesis 27:4 "So that I (nehphesh—a "living being") may bless you before I die" New Revised Standard Version.
Up to Genesis 27:4 for hundreds of years nehphesh is translated soul
o Only four times out of twenty-two in the King James Version.
o Only one time out of twenty-two in the New King James Version.
o None in The New International Version and most others translations.
Nehphesh has been used 21 times before the New King James Version translated it "soul" for the first time, but even then the translators of many versions have chosen not to translate it "soul." In Genesis "nehphesh" is not an immortal "immaterial, invisible part of man," but it is the life, living creature, living being, any living thing, whether animals, fish, or man, all mortal beings are a nehphesh. If the translators had continued to translate nehphesh as life, living creature, living being, or person, as they did in the first twenty-one times it is used, there may not be the divisions there are today. Why did they not translate nehphesh into soul in the first part of the Bible that covers hundreds of years? Maybe because they thought it would have made animals have souls, and they did not believe animals could have souls. I find it difficult to see how anyone could not call their honesty into question for it is undeniable that they put their belief over the word of God, and they deliberately hid the truth from their readers; they deliberately hid the truth from you.
(23) Genesis 32:30 "My life (nehphesh--"living beings") is preserved" King James Version. Most translations use "life" in this passage for an immortal soul could not perish and would not need to be preserved.
(24) Genesis 34:3
(25) Genesis 34:8
(26) Genesis 35:18
(27) Genesis 36:6 "All the persons (nehpheshs-mortal beings) of his house" King James Version.
(28) Genesis 37:21 "Let us not kill him (nehpheshs-mortal beings)" King James Version. It was obvious to the translators that they could not translate this nehphesh into soul, after all an immortal soul could not be killed.
(29) Job 12:10 "In whose hand is the soul (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals) of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind." Is it not strange that they give animals a soul, but other translations took their soul away from them? "The life of every living thing" New American Standard Bible.
(30) Job 41:21 “His breath” (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to an animal, possibly a crocodile).
(31) Isaiah 19:10 "All that make sluices and ponds for fish (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals, fish)" King James Version. Although nehphesh is in the Hebrew, many translations seems not to know what to do with it, and just took it out, or completely changed it for they did not want a soul to be in a pond.
(32) Jeremiah 2:24 "A wild ass used to the wilderness, that snuffed up the wind in her (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to an animal) desire."
(33) Proverbs 27:7 “The full soul (nehpheshs-mortal being) loathes an honeycomb; but to the hungry soul (nehpheshs-mortal being)" ever bitter thing is sweet.” How could the translators think an immaterial something could be full or could be hungry for honey?
o “A sated man (nehphesh) loathes honey, but to a famished man (nehphesh) any bitter thing is sweet” New American Standard Bible.
o “He (nehphesh) who is full loathes honey, but to the hungry even what is bitter tastes sweet” New International Version. “Nehphesh” is in the Hebrew two times, but one of the two it was left out in the New International Version.
(34) Numbers 31:28 "And levy a tribute unto the Lord of the men of war which went out to battle: one soul (nehpheshs-mortal beings–used referring to both persons and animals) of five hundred, both of the persons, and of the beeves, and of the asses and of the sheep." Of about 870 times “nehphesh” is in the Old Testament this and Job 12:10 are the only two passages where the King James translators translated “nehphesh” as “soul” when it has reference to animals, and is maybe that the only reason they did this time is that it has equal reference to people as it does to animals and they had no choice.
DAVID J. HEINIZMAN, "So carefully has the translation of nehphesh been guarded in relation to animals as 'souls,' that we can't help but wonder if it were not done intentionally to conceal the fact that animals are souls as well as men." "Man Became A Living Soul."
(35) Proverbs 12:10: “A righteous man has regard for the life (soul-nehphesh) of his beast.”
The translators made this one word (nehphesh) be:
1. Any earthly being,
o Before God breathed the breath of life into body of the person or beast.
o While they had the breath of life.
o And the dead body after the breath of life of the person or beast was gone.
2. The life in any earthly being only while they have the breath of life in them.
3. The pagan immaterial, invisible, no substance, deathless soul that is in a person that lives after the person it was in is dead, but it is not in any beast.
Do you wonder, as I do, how they came up with three meaning of this one word that are nothing alike, and how they know when it was one and when it was the other?
(36 to 870) It would be to long to quote all the 870 times the Hebrew word nehphesh is in the Old Testament with just over one-half being translated "soul," about 473 times in King James Version. Not once do any of them imply anything about life beyond the grave or about a soul being immortal. Nehphesh in the New International Version Old Testament is translated soul only 72 times out of the 870 times it is used, according to the this translation, 798 times nehphesh was not a “soul.”
A nehphesh could be:
o Saved (Genesis 19:19; 1 Samuel 19:11; 2 Samuel 19:5)
o Killed (Numbers 35:11; 35:15; 35:30)
o Ransomed (Exodus 21:30)
o Destroyed (Leviticus 23:30; Joshua 11:11)
o Delivered (Joshua 2:13)
o Sought to be killed (Judges 18:25)
o Taken (Deuteronomy 19:21)
o Forfeited (Joshua 2:14)
o Risked (Judges 12:3; 1 Samuel 28:21)
o Lost (Judges 1:25)
o Jeopardized (Judges 5:18; 1 Samuel 19:50
All 870 times have one thing in common, they are all associated with the activity of a living being including dying, and nehphesh never implies anything about life after the death of the living being, all the 870 are all speaking of living beings that will die, not of an immortal deathless something that is in a living being. None of the 870 times are an immortal deathless being that is in a person; they are a mortal living being that can die, be killed, or be dead, (whether the living being is a person, animal or fish). Nehphesh is always associated with the activity of earthly breathing beings, both of person(s) and animal(s). It never implies anything about life beyond the grave. IT IS NEVER TRANSLATED "SPIRIT" Although nehphesh—Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature” is translated into about thirty-five words, thirty-four all have reference to a mortal being, animal, or person that is not deathless, none to an “immaterial invisible part of a person” that is deathless.
1. How could nehphesh be a mortal breathing creature that will die in thirty-four of the words into which it is translated?
2. And it is an immortal something that does not breathe, and that will not die in only one of the thirty-five words. Is it because this is the only word that they could use to put the Pagan immortal soul into the Bible, but were not able to translate it into an immortal invisible deathless something most of the times it was used?
Can one word be rightly translated this way? How could the translators know when to translate this word as a mortal being that will die, and when the same word was to be changed to an immortal being that cannot die? No one reading some of the English translations of the Bible would have any way of knowing that all these thirty-five words are translations (or mistranslations) of only one word. Did the translators do so because they wanted to make a person be an "immortal being," and more than a "living creatures?" In almost one half of the times nehphesh is used in the Old Testament, even the King James translators could not translate it "soul." When the all-knowing God used just one word, why did the translators used thirty-five words and change it as they wished to, changed it from a noun to pronouns, changed to verbs, changed to adjectives, changed to adverbs, etc.? Did they think that for all the years from Adam unto Christ? God people could understand the one word God used, but now about forty words are needed to translate that one word? If one word were all that was needed from Adam unto the translation of the King James Version, why would God's one word not be enough today? Do the translators think they have improved the Hebrew Old Testament by changing the one word that God used into about thirty-five words, and changing this noun into about all parts of speech? The use of many words came when the Catholic Church brought in unconditional immortality, and they had to get it into the Bible. The Hebrew manuscripts still have just one word–nehphesh, which was the one word God inspired. Were the translators inspired to change it to many words? And changed from one part of speech into many parts of speech?
Nehphesh is translated soul far fewer times in the New American Standard Version, and in most other translations, including the New King James Version, than it is in the King James Version. Were they going as far as they dared to in correcting the King James Version?
The way soul is understood and used today in English (an undying something that is in a person) makes putting the word soul in a translation for the English people today be a false and deliberately misleading translation, for it makes it where today's English reader cannot know what God said, and will understand only what the prejudiced outlook the translators wanted their readers to understand when they know that most that read it would understand the word soul only as it is used today. Without much study of Bible words, which most Bible reader will never do, they cannot know what God said to them when they read the word soul, and they will think that the somewhat prejudice outlook of the translator is the word of God. God's word has been deliberately replaced with the teaching of man (Matthew 15:9) in a way that will have more influence on our conception of what our nature is and the nature of all living beings than any other question.
THE “SOUL” AND “EATING OF BLOOD”
Is the immortal "soul" (nehphesh) in the blood? Is a part of a person that many say it lives after the death of the body that is in the blood of both men and animals? (Leviticus 17:10-15) In only six verses nehphesh is used ten times but the translators concealed this from their reads by translating nehphesh as both life and soul, always life the four times it was speaking of animals, and soul the six times it was speaking of a person; does this not show their reluctance to let us see what God said to us?
Leviticus 17:10-15 in the King James Version, the same word (nehphesh) is translated soul six times and life four times.
o Used referring to animals four times—nehphesh translated (1) life, (2) life, (3) life, (4) life.
o Used referring to man six times—nehphesh translated (1) soul, (2) soul, (3) soul, (4) soul, (5) soul, (6) soul.
Leviticus 17:10-15 in New Revised Standard Version
o Used referring to animals four times—nehphesh translated (1) life, (2) life, (3) life, (4) life.
o Used referring to man six times—nehphesh translated (1) person, (2) person, (3) lives, (4) life, (5) person, (6) persons.
Leviticus 17:10-15 in New International Version
o Used referring to animals four times—nehphesh translated (1) life, (2) life, (3) life, (4) life.
o Used referring to man six times—nehphesh translated (1) person, (2) person, (3) lives, (4) person, (5) life, (6) anyone.
Leviticus 17:10-15 King James Version, "I will even set my face against that SOUL (person–nehphesh, used referring to man) that eats blood, and will cut him off from among his people. For the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals that are being eat) of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your SOULS: (nehphesh, used referring to man) for it is the blood that makes an atonement for the SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man). Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, no SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) of you shall eat blood...For it is the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of all flesh; the blood of it is for the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel, no SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the LIFE (soul-nehphesh, used referring to animals) of all flesh is the blood thereof: whosoever eats it shall be cut off. And every SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) that eats that which died of itself...he shall wash his clothes, and bath himself in water" In this passage, the King James Version translated the same word "soul" all six times when it used referring to man, and "life" all four times when it used referring to animals. Can anyone not see how the translators picked when they wanted "nehphesh" to be "soul," and when they wanted "nehphesh" to be "life"? They could not let an immortal soul be in the blood, nor could they let animals have an immortal soul in them. Their theology said a man had to have a soul in him, but an animal could not have one, and they were not willing that their reader see that the word "nehphesh" is used referring to both, and that both do not have a soul but both are a soul.
The vanishing use of soul in Leviticus 17:10-15
Leviticus 17:10-15 New Revised Standard Version, "If anyone of the house of Israel or of the aliens who reside among them eats any blood, I will set my face against that PERSON (nehphesh) who eats blood, and will cut that PERSON (nehphesh) off from the people. For the LIFE (nehphesh) of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you for making atonement for your LIVES (nehphesh) on the altar, for, as LIFE, (nehphesh) it is the blood that makes atonement. Therefore I have said to the people of Israel: No PERSON (nehphesh) among you shall eat blood...For the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature-its blood is its LIFE; (nehphesh) therefore I have said to the people of Israel: You shall not eat the blood of any creature, for the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature is its blood; whoever eats it shall be cut off. All PERSONS, (nehphesh) citizens or aliens, who eat what dies of itself...shall wash their clothes, and bathe themselves in water"
Leviticus 17:10-15 New International Version, "Any Israelite or any alien living among them who eats any blood-I will set my face against that PERSON (nehphesh) who eats blood and will cut HIM (nehphesh) off from his people. For the LIFE (nehphesh) of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for YOURSELVES (nehphesh) on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonements for one's LIFE (nehphesh). Therefore I say to the Israelites, 'None of YOU (nehphesh) may eat blood, nor may an alien living among you eat blood'...because the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature is its blood. That is why I have said to the Israelites, You must not eat the blood of any creature, because the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature is its blood; anyone who eats it must be cut off. ANYONE (nehphesh), whether native-born or alien, who eats anything found dead or torn by wild animals must wash his clothes and bathe with water'."
o "No soul (nehphesh) shall eat blood" Leviticus 17:12. No person–an immortal soul eating blood?
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THE DYING USE OF "SOUL"
IN THE OLD TESTAMENT: In translations that were made by those who believe a person has an immortal soul, why is the use of the word "soul" becoming used less? Nehphesh is used in the Old Testament 870 times.
TRANSLATED SOUL ONLY
o 473 times out of 870 times – King James Version in 1611.
o 289 times out of 870 times– New King James Version in 1982. Soul is used 184 times less in the Old Testament than it is in the King James Version.
o 118 times out of 870 times – Amplified Bible in 1954.
o 142 times out of 870 times – The Message in 1993.
o 254 times out of 870 times – New American Standard Bible in 1960.
o 115 times out of 870 times – New International Version in 1973.
o 136 times out of 870 times – New International Version in 1984 update.
o 95 times out of 870 times – New International Version in 2010 – 2011 update.
o 96 times out of 870 times – New International Reader's Version in 1996.
o 73 times out of 870 times – Today's New International Version in 2001.
o 44 times out of 870 times – New Living Translation in 1996.
o 48 times out of 870 times – Holman Christian Standard Bible in 1999.
o 26 times out of 870 times – Contemporary English Version in 1995.
o 0 times out of 878 times – Common English Bible in 2011.
o Most of the times that nehphesh was not translated "soul" it was translated "life," "person," "heart," or the noun was changed to a pronoun (he, him, she, her, etc.) that is related to a person, and has no reference to an immortal being that is in a person.
IN THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Greek work translated soul (psukee) is used 106 times.
TRANSLATED SOUL ONLY
o 55 times out of 106 times in the King James Version in 1611.
o 27 times out of 106 times in the New King James Version in 1982. Soul is used 28 times less in the New King James Version than it is in the King James Version.
o 39 times out of 106 times – Amplified Bible in 1954.
o 43 times out of 106 times – New American Standard Bible in 1960.
o 23 times out of 106 times – New International Version in 1984 and 2010 - 2011 update.
o 23 times out of 106 times – Today's New International Version in 2001.
o 29 times out of 106 times – New Living Translation in 1996.
o 20 times out of 106 times – New International Reader's Version in 1996.
o 23 times out of 106 times – Holman Christian Standard Bible in 1999.
o 22 times out of 106 times – Contemporary English Version in 1995.
o 7 times out of 106 times – Common English Bible in 2011.
o 0 times out of 106 times – Christian Bible in 1991.
IN BOTH THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT: The Hebrew word translated soul (nehphesh) is used over 870 times in the Old Treatment, and the Greek word translated soul (psukee) is used 106 times, both together about 976 times.
TRANSLATED SOUL ONLY
o 528 times out of 976 times – King James Version in 1611.
o 316 times out of 976 times–New King James Version in 1982. Soul is used 212 times less in the Bible in the New King James Version than it is in the King James Version.
o 200 times out of 976 times– Amplified Bible in 1954.
o 301 times out of 976 times – New American Standard Bible in 1960.
o 140 times out of 976 times – New International Version in 1973.
o 136 times out of 976 times – New International Version in 1984 update.
o 95 times out of 976 times – New International Version in 2010 update.
o 96 times out of 976 times – Today's New International Version in 2001.
o 39 times out of 976 times – New International reader's Version in 1996.
o 177 times out of 976 times – The Message in 1993.
o 73 times out of 976 times – New Living Translation in 1996.
o 58 times out of 976 times – Holman Christian Standard Bible in 1999.
o 58 times out of 976 times – Contemporary English Version in 1995.
o 7 times out of 976 times – Common English Bible in 2011.
Most, if not all these translators believe in an immortal soul, but have been reducing the times this Hebrew word (nehphesh) is translated "soul" and replacing it with "life," "person," "heart," or changed it to pronouns that are related to a person. The way soul has been mostly removed in most translations, and replaced with life or person, the translators are saying the English word soul is not a true translation of the Hebrew.
WHY THE USE OF SOUL IS DYING
In many passages the psukee does thing that only this earthly body can do, things that an immortal soul that has no substance could not do. “And He told them a parable, saying, "The land of a rich man was very productive. And he began reasoning to himself, saying, 'What shall I do, since I have no place to store my crops?' Then he said, 'This is what I will do: I will tear down my barns and build larger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. And I will say to my soul (psukee), Soul (psukee), you have many goods laid up for many years to come; take your ease, eat, drink and be merry.’ But God said to him, ‘You fool! This very night your soul (psukee) is required of you'" Luke 12:19-21.
The New International Version removed “soul.” “And I'll say to myself (Greek psukee–life), ‘you (Greek psukee–life) have plenty of good things laid up for many years. Take life easy; eat drink and be merry.’ But, God said to him, ‘You fool! This very night your life (Greek–psukee) will be demanded from you.’”
It is obvious that an immaterial, invisible, no substance soul would have no use for the things the rich man stored in his barns, it would not be able to eat and drink the thing stored in barns, that this was not speaking of an immaterial soul without any substance, but was speaking of an earthly person that can eat and drink of the substance that was stored and would be able to use the things stored; it was life that would be required of the earthly person, not life from an immortal soul that could not die; when a persons life was required who would use the things he had stored? Translators put Plato’s “immortal soul” that could not use the things stored into the Bible by mistranslating, but many transitions are taking much of their mistranslating out.
The Hebrew noun, nehphesh has been changed to many different pronouns, but all the pronouns have a reference to an earthly being, none to Plato’s no substance soul. Most of the 473 times nehphesh was translated soul in the King James Version it has been translated life or person, or changed to many different pronouns in many translations. Nehphesh did not mean an immaterial invisible something in a person in the Old Testament; how could the translators think it was right to change one noun into many pronouns?
The Hebrew people in the Old Testament that were reading their Scriptures would have had no way to make a distinction in the life (soul–nehphesh) of animals or men for Moses made no distinction. Even today in the Hebrew Old Testament there is no distinction between a person and or an animal being a soul–a living creature, but translators have changed this. Only in the English translations is there a distinction, and this distinction is because man has changed God's word. God used the same word to describe both persons and animals. If this one word proves one is now immortal, it proves both are. Man says animals do not have a soul but people do. God says both people and animals are a soul.
Summary: About one third of the words translated soul, nehphesh in the Old Testament, and psukee in the New Testament are associated with the destruction and death of a soul (life, nehphesh). This is an insoluble problem for those that believe today's theology, which says a soul cannot die.
Since the word “soul” has a meaning in English that in not in the Hebrew word “nehphesh” or the Greek word “psuche” the question is, “Is soul a true translation,” or was it the translators putting their Platonic and Hellenized philosophy into the Bible? The doctrine of an immortal soul did not exist when the Old Testament was written and nehphesh would not be understood to be a “soul” not unto the Geek doctrine was brought into the church by the so called “church fathers,” and by the dark age Catholic Church. The translators of the King James Version still believed this doctrine and changed the word of God in this and many places, but think goodness most translations have now partly corrected this change.
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPEDIA: "Not, however, to dwell on the fact that many peoples have no clear conception of an immaterial 'soul' in the modern sense (the Egyptians, e. g. distinguished several parts, the Ka, the Ba, etc., which survived death; often the surviving self is simply a ghostly resemblance of the earthly self, nourished with food, offerings, etc.), there is the more serious consideration that the state into which the surviving part is supposed to enter as death is anything but a state which can be described as 'life,' or worthy to be dignified with the name 'immortality.' It is a state peculiar to 'death;' in most cases, shadowy, inert, feeble, dependent, joyless; a state to be dreaded and shrunk from, not one to be hoped for. If, on the other hand, as in the hope of immortality among the nobler heathen, it is conceived of, as for some, a state of happiness-the clog of the body being shaken off-this yields the idea, which has passed into so much of our modern thinking, of an 'immortality of the soul,' of an imperishableness of the spiritual part, sometimes supposed to extend backward as well as forward; an inherent indestructibility." From the article "Immortal; Immortality." Also from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, "We are influenced always more or less by the Greek, Platonic idea that the body dies, yet the soul is immortal. Such an idea is utterly contrary to the Israelite consciousness and is nowhere found in the Old Testament" From the article "Death," page 812. Also from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, "Soul, like spirit, has various shades of meaning in the O.T., which may be summarized as follows: 'Soul,' 'living being,' 'life,' 'self,' 'person,' 'desire,' 'appetite,' 'emotion' and 'passion'...NEHPHESH OR SOUL, CAN ONLY DENOTE THE INDIVIDUAL LIFE WITH A MATERIAL ORGANIZATION OR BODY." page 2837. "For the Hebrews a person was a unity, not to be divided into body, soul, and spirit as the Greeks did," page 592.
JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA: "The belief that the soul continues its existence after the dissolution of the body is a matter of philosophical or theological speculation rather than of simple faith, AND IS ACCORDINGLY, NOWHERE TAUGHT IN THE HOLY SCRIPTURE...The belief in the immortality of the soul came to the Jews from contact with Greek thought and chiefly through the philosophy of Plato, its principal exponent, who was led to it through Orphic and Dleusinian mysteries in which Babylonian and Egyptian views were strangely blended," "Immortality of the Soul," 1925. The concept of punishment after death is not in the Old Testament. The Law given through Moses deals only with punishment in this life and has no provisions for punishment after death. From their contact with pagan philosophy, the pagan immortal soul teaching had made some inroads with some Jews by the time of Christ. Paul warned about this Philosophy (Colossians 2:8).
C. R. GRESHAM: Commenting on 1 Corinthians 15:51-52 said, "Paul is pointing out that the resurrection truth which he is revealing was partially, if not wholly, hidden to past generations. We must take this seriously and not read New Testament revelation back into the Old Testament accounts…It is generally conceived that there is little about resurrection or after-life in what the Jews called the Torah...and the Former Prophets...Death is seen as the end, the destruction of human existence," page 25. "Man's soul is primarily his vitality, his life, not some separate part of a person that has independent existence and an immortal nature, God's spirit (His breath, His power) creates and sustains all living things (Ps 33:6; 104:29-30), even the human spirit (Zech 12:1), but never is man's soul or spirit seen as an immortal part of man surviving death," page 40. "The widespread misunderstanding that the New Testament teaches the immortality of the soul...If one recognizes that death and eternal life in the New Testament are always bound up the Christ-event, then it becomes clear that for the first Christians the soul is not intrinsically immortal, but rather became so only through the resurrection of Jesus Christ," page 275. "What The Bible Says About Resurrection" The College Press, 1983, (Christian Church).
INTERPRETER’S DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE: “No biblical text authorizes the statement that the soul is separated from the body at the moment of death” Volume 1, Article “Death,” page 802, 1960. “The word ‘soul’ in English…coming from philosophical Greek (Platonism)…In the OT it never means the immortal soul, but it is essentially the life principle, or the living being, or the self as the subject of appetite, and emotion” Volume 4, Article “Soul,” 1960.
The belief of Socrates and Plato was that when a soul is freed from the person it was in that soul would live forever in a better place without the person that it had been in. If, as Plato taught, a soul is a separate being from the person it is in, it would make it unjust for it to the tormented for what the person die. It would be like making Bill be judged and punished for what John did.
This Greek philosophy was what most of the church fathers had been taught and believed, the background from which they came. Tertullian, one of the first of the church fathers to teach this philosophy was truthful about from where he had learned it. He said, "For some things are known even by nature: the immortality of the soul, for instance, is held by many...I may use, therefore, the opinion of a Plato, when he declares, 'Every soul is immortal'" Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 3, page 1916. By the time of the translation of the King James Version this heathen doctrine was believed by the Roman Catholic Church and most Protestants, but had been changed from believing that all souls are freed and go on to a much better place to a few souls go to a better place, but most souls, after being freed from the person it was in by the death of the person, will go to eternal torment in Hell; the “Hell” part had to be added to what was believed by Plato, or the Catholic Church with it’s priest would not have been needed, after the death of the persons that souls was trapped in then all souls would have gone to the same better place.
The Hebrew word “nehphesh” and the Greek word “psuche” were the only words the translators could use to put the immortal soul they believed in into the Bible; but they found only 528 times out of 976 times these two words were used that was suitable to use to add this philosophy. Later translations have been little by little removing it.
Neither “nehphesh” nor “psuche” are used with the qualifying words immoral, undying, endless, or everlasting, but in today’s preaching these words are continually added to “soul.”
The Egyptians might have been the first to believe in the dual nature of a person. They believed that death was a door to a new form of life, which may be higher or lower, depending on how good or bad a person was. They believed the body was evil and a prison to a soul. They built the pyramids and other tombs and put the things in them they thought would be needed in the next life. Death was a friend to them that freed a soul from the evil body it was in; but it was the Greeks (Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato) who adopted this Egyptian belief of the dual nature of a person and developed the philosophy of the immortal soul. Many church fathers were schooled in and believed in this Greek philosophy, and were only partly converted. They, after greatly expanding on the teaching of Plato, brought the Greek philosophy into the church in the apostasy. Unconditional immortality is the foundation of the doctrine of Hell. If a person had an unseen immortal soul in them that would not die when they died, there had to be a place to put the evil souls after they were freed from the person. The "souls" that were in the saved had to be put somewhere; therefore, the doctrine of a soul going to Heaven or Hell immediately after the person died without a resurrection or a judgment came into being, and the New Testament teaching of the resurrection of the dead became unneeded and of little or no importance.
In the Greek philosophy a soul never dies; only the body dies, freeing a soul to a higher life. Christ taught the resurrection of man, not the Greek "immaterial, invisible part of man" (W. E. Vine) that never dies. The Greeks did not believe in or need a resurrection, or a savior, or redeemer; these would not fit into their belief. They believed in an immortal soul; therefore, there could be no death for any souls. The Greek philosophy of an immortal soul was opposed and opposite to the teaching of Christ on the resurrection. The immortal soul doctrine was believed by most pagan religions in the time of Paul, and when he was before Agrippa, he asked, "Why is it considered incredible among you people if God does raise the dead?" (Acts 26:8 New American Standard Version). To Plato and Agrippa, the resurrection of the dead would have been a step backward. It would put a soul that was freed from its prison of a body back into the prison it had been freed from.
o The Greek and heathen belief that the immortal soul is indestructible, demands that a soul cannot die, but must be alive forever somewhere.
o The resurrection as taught by Christ demands that a person be dead, if not, there cannot be a resurrection.
The resurrection is a calling back to life the whole person God created, not a calling back to life, as Plato taught, a deathless something that is difference than the whole person that it had been in, an immaterial living soul that had been in a person when the person was alive, but has gone on to wherever it is believed souls go after it leave the person it was once in is dead. If the Greek doctrine of an immortal soul that cannot die, which is believed by many today were true, then the resurrection of Christ and our resurrection would be pointless even if it were possible to raise from the dead a soul that is not dead.
PLATO and SOCRATES -- versus -- CHRIST
Immortality --------- versus - A resurrection to life
Death a friend ------ versus - Death is "the last enemy"
Plato: A soul is | If there is no resurrection
Immortal, therefore only | death is the end of
"It" is alive after death| all life 1 Corinthians 15:14-23
Plato: Only the body dies| "Then they also that are
Freeing soul to a higher | fallen asleep in Christ
Life without a body | have perished"
Only some inter part of | A person (who in Christ) will be
A person is immortal | immortal, not just part of a person
All the dead are alive | Christ is "the first born from the dead"
Plato's immortal soul and Christ's resurrection are not compatible, both cannot be. One can be true, but not both; they are alien and complete opposite to each other. THE IMMORTAL SOUL DOCTRINE OF PLATO IS A TOTAL REJECTION OF THE TEACHING OF CHRIST ON THE RESURRECTION OF A PERSON TO LIFE. TO BELIEVE PLATO IS TO REJECT CHRIST.
o Plato argued for an immortal, immaterial soul that was better off after the death of the person it had been in.
o Paul taught the resurrection of the dead person.
o THE TWO ARE COMPLETED INCOMPATIBLE; IT IS DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND WHY MANY THAT SAY THEY BELIEVE THE BIBLE CHOOSE PLATO’S PAGAN PHILOSOPHY OVER THE BIBLE.
Paul and Plato used the same Greek words, but not in the same way. Immortal, immortality, indestructible, never dying was used by Plato, and are used by many today to describe a soul that lives after the death of the person it once was in, but in the Old or New Testament these words are never used referring to any lost person, or to anything that had been in a person. The expression "immortal soul" is very common in the writing of the pagan philosophers and today's preachers, but is not found in the Bible.
PAUL USED |PLATO AND MANY TODAY SAY A SOUL
Die |cannot die
Death |no death
Destroyed |cannot be destroyed
Corruption |is incorruptible
Mortal |is immortal
Perish |cannot perish
What Plato and the Greeks thought about there being a soul in a person that would not die when the person it was in died is not the word of God, it is nothing to those that believe the Bible, it is not any part of the Christian faith.
HENRY CONSTABLE: "In the very terms in which the punishment of the wicked is asserted in the New Testament. Where the latter says the soul shall die, Plato says it shall not die; where the latter says it shall be destroyed, Plato says it shall not be destroyed; where the latter says it shall perish and suffer corruption, Plato says it shall not perish and is incorruptible. The phrases are the very same, only that what Plato denies of all souls alike, the New Testament asserts of some of the souls of men. But the discussion of the question was not confined to the school of Plato or to his times. Every school of philosophy took it up, whether to confirm Plato's view, or to deny it, or to heap ridicule upon it. All the phrases we have been discussing from the New Testament had been explained, turned over and over, handled with all the power of the masters of language, presented in every phase, so that of their sense there could be no doubt, nor could there be any one ignorant of their sense before Jesus spoke, or an Evangelist or Apostle wrote. The subject had not died out before the days of Christ. It never could and never will die out. In every city of the Roman world were schools of Grecian taught in the days of the Apostles. In every school the question before us was discussed in the phrases and language of the New Testament" "Duration and Nature of Future Punishment," 1871.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: "Plato established the basic Western tradition on this topic by defining the soul as the spiritual part of the human that survived death" 1991.
Some believe that in the afterlife there will be nothing more than a collection of disembodied spirits or souls that will be just as alive and just the same from the day of birth of the persons these soul were in as these souls will ever be after the death of the person. Death and the resurrection are out of step with the belief of Plato.
That there is something in a person and that something being deathless is a philosophy of man that Paul warned about (Colossians 2:8). An immortal soul was copied from heathen philosophy and superstition. Those who believe we now have "an immortal soul" get their belief from Greek philosophy, but are inconstant and self-contradicting; they say a soul cannot die, but it needs a Savior anyway. If we were born with an immortal soul, it would have no need for Christ to save it from the death it cannot die. Christianity did not destroy the pagan doctrine of Egypt and Greece; by the Dark Age it had adopted it and made it a part of the teaching of the church.
Death is the enemy (1 Corinthians 15:26). It is the destruction of the life given by God. It is not the liberator of an immortal soul, as Plato believed it to be. It is death, which must be conquered by the resurrection. When we understand that death is really death, not another kind of life for an immortal something that is in a person, something that has no substance, the resurrection is all-important. Without a resurrection we can do what we want for this life is all there is (1 Corinthians 15:32). Our only hope is the resurrection, and without it there will be no life of any kind for us after death. Plato's immortal, deathless soul needs no resurrection; A DEATHLESS SOUL CANNOT BE RESURRECTED. "Set your hope perfectly on the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ" (1 Peter 1:12). It is at the resurrection that we "shall receive the crown of glory that fades not away" (1 Peter 5:4).
1. "Be patient; therefore, brethren, until the coming of the Lord" (James 4:7-8). As the farmer is patient unto the harvest to receive his reward, the believers are to be patient unto the coming of Christ to receive their reward.
2. "It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body" (1 Corinthians 15:43). It is not a spiritual body that is now in a natural body that will go to Heaven at the death of the natural body. "We (persons, not souls) shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible (dead persons raised from the dead, not already living souls raised from the dead)" (1 Corinthians 15:52).
3. "Beloved, now are we children of God, and it is not yet made manifest what we shall be. We know that, if he shall be manifested, we shall be like him; for we shall see him even as he is" (1 John 3:2).
The wrath of God will be "in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God" (Romans 2:5), not wrath at death before the Judgment Day, and not eternal wrath after the Judgment Day is over. On that day, it will be rendered "to them that by patience in well doing seek for glory and honor and incorruption, eternal life" (Romans 2:8), not to souls that are believed to be in all that will be given eternal life on the day of the death of the persons those souls were in. The judgment will be "in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men" (Romans 2:16), not at death. It is the Judgment Day when "we (not souls) shall all stand before the judgment-seat of God" (Romans 14:10). It is the day that the Lord will judge all, "Wherefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes who will both bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and make manifest the counsels of the hearts" (1 Corinthians 4:5, also, Ephesians 4:30).
1. "And to wait for his Son from heaven" (1 Thessalonians 1:10). Death will not take anyone to Heaven without waiting for the second coming of Jesus.
2. When the Lord shall descend from Heaven, them that have fallen asleep in Jesus, "the dead in Christ shall rise first; then we that are alive, that are left, shall together with them be caught up in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord" (1 Thessalonians 4:17). Their hope is to be raised from their sleep at the coming of Christ, not come back from living in Heaven or Abraham's bosom.
3. Paul says he will receive a "crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give to me at that day; and not to me only, but also to all them that have loved his appearing." (2 Timothy 4:8).
o The Bible speaks of “us,” “we,” and “you” that shall be with the Lord after the judgment day, the person will be resurrected, not a soul that once was in us, but it has gone on to be with the Lord without us.
The Bible teaching, "The wages of sin is death" leaves no lost souls alive after the judgment and second death to be put anywhere. The teaching of Christ, that life (everlasting life or immortality) will be given only to those who obey Him, makes Hell impossible. Unless Christ gives eternal life (immortality) to the lost, they cannot live forever anywhere. The Greek teaching of an immortal soul must be made to stand, and the teaching of Christ that He will give life only to those who come to Him must be removed, or there cannot be a Hell.
Socrates drinks hemlock and died with a smile on his face because he thought he was freeing a soul to leave his body and live with the gods, to live free of being in him. Christ "sweats as it was great drops of blood" (Luke 22:44). Death is the enemy of man. It destroys him, and only the resurrection frees us from death, and gives us back the life death takes. In death there is no life in Heaven or life in any other place for us before the resurrection. The resurrection is not just a coming back from Heaven to be judged and then going back to Heaven, it is our only hope of life after our death. Without the resurrection "then they also that are fallen asleep in Christ have perished" (1 Corinthians 15:18). The Greek philosophy that found its way into the Church says souls that have left the persons they were in have not perished, but are freed to live with God in Heaven, that souls are alive without the need of a resurrection. As the results of the pagan immortal soul doctrine there came into exist many other false doctrines, Hellfire, Purgatory, worship of Mary and saints, etc.
The Protestant Reformation was largely a reaction to medieval superstitious beliefs, and Purgatory that is an intermediate state of temporal punishment where souls that were not good enough to go to Heaven, and not bad enough to go to Hell; in the Church in the Dark Age, this was almost all souls that had left the dead persons that they had been in. The priests would have the loved ones pay for souls to shorten the time souls that had been in the dead persons were in Purgatory. Selling indulgences and paying to reduce the time deathless souls that had left the dead loved ones would spend in Purgatory was rejected by the Reformation, as was many other superstitious beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church; but the Greek dual nature of a person and the doctrine of Hell were retained. Calvin believed a soul did not sleep, but went to Heaven or Hell as soon as it left the person.
The Westminster Confession says, "Souls of the righteous...are received unto the highest heavens...soul of the wicked are cast into Hell."
Different characteristics of a person, not different parts of a person that one part can live without any other part, but a person looked at from different points of view.
1. BODY: Flesh and blood.
2. SOUL: A living being: the body + the breath of life.
3. SPIRIT: The body of dust + the breath of life (spirit–ruach) = a living being-soul.
4. MIND: If the intellectual part of a person is his mind, does a "soul" as it is used in today's theology have its own mind? Does a soul have any thoughts that our mind does not have? If not, according to today's theology, the only thing that will be in Heaven will have no thoughts.
5. HEART: The most commonly used characteristic of a person. (Genesis 6:5; Judges; 16:15, 17, 18, 20; Matthew 5:8; Luke 12:34; Romans 10:10; Hebrews 3:10). The heart is used in the place of the mind for the thing that the mind does, the seat of consciousness, intellect, affection, understanding and will, not the part of the body that pumps blood. (Matthew 13:15; 15:19; Mark 7:19; Luke 6:45; 9:47; Acts 8:21; 8:37; 28:27; Romans 10:9; 10:10; 1 Corinthians 2:9; 7:37; Hebrews 3:10; 4:12; 1 John 3:20-21). Has not the things said about the heart been transferred to a soul by those who believe a soul is immortal?
The whole man dies, the whole man is buried, the whole man is resurrected for judgment, and the whole person will live with Christ.
(1) The whole person dies the whole person is buried.
o “Aaron died and there he was buried” (Deuteronomy 10:6).
o “There they buried Abraham and his wife Sarah, there they buried Isaac…” (Genesis 49:31).
o “David that he both died and was buried and his tomb is with us to this day” (Acts 2:29). And hundreds of others where the whole person died and was buried.
(2) The whole person is resurrected and judged, not just a deathless, immaterial something that had been in a person unto the death of the person.
o Stephen “fell asleep” (Acts 7:59).
o “David slept with his fathers and was buried” (1 Kings 2:10).
(3) The whole person will be raised and live with Christ, not Plato’s pagan soul that will never be dead, never be in the tomb, or raised from the dead.
o “All that are in the tombs shall hear his voice, and shall come forth” (John 6:29).
o “And I will raise him up at the last day” (John 6:54).
ASHLEY S. JOHNSON, founder and president of the Johnson Bible College: “Generally the world ‘soul’ in the ordinary version should be life,” “The Resurrection And The Future Life,” page 336, Knoxville Lithographing Company, 1913.
"MAN BECAME A LIVING BEING" Genesis 1:26 "Then God said, 'Let Us make MAN in Our image,'" not "Let Us make a soul in Our Image and put this soul in MAN unto the death of the MAN it is in." Genesis 2:7 "Then the Lord formed MAN of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; (not breathed into the body an immortal undying no substance soul, but breathed into “man” the breath of life, which both men and animals have), and MAN became a living being." Not a body + an immortal soul, but "a living being." Not two beings, a body being (a person) with an invisible soul being living in the person. How can the breath of life in your nose (breathing) be an immortal something that dose not breathe? The same “man” that was created “in the image of God” is the same “man” that was created “male and female.” It is “man” that was created “male and female,” man that is in the “image of God;” it is not an immaterial something in “man” that is in the image of God.
The body of dust + the breath of life = a living soul (a living being-nehphesh), Genesis 2:7. The breath of life without the body would not be a person or animal; it would not be an immortal living being, not a nehphesh. All living creatures, whether they are animals or sea-dwelling creatures are souls (nehpheshs–living beings).
DEATH OF MANKIND—CREATION IN REVERSE
Creation—body made of dust—breath of life from God = a living person (Genesis 2:7).
Death—breath of life returns to God—body returns to dust = a dead person (Ecclesiastes 12:7).
God formed Man, not merely the body of man; it was MAN that was formed from the dust of the ground. Man is in the image of God; it is MAN, not an invisible something that was put in the MAN but is not the MAN, not something that has no substance that is in the image of God. After Adam was put out of the garden he was still in the image of God, mankind is still in the image of God. If Adam was created innate immortal, then what was the purpose of the tree of life? If there was an immortal soul in Adam that was in Adam and it was created not subject to death, then the tree of life could have had no purpose; an immortal soul would live forever with or without it; if there was a deathless soul that was in Adam, that deathless soul would not have died if it did or did not eat of the tree of life; it was Adam that could and did die for eating of the tree, not a deathless soul that could not die, therefore; it could not be what was to die for eating of the forbidden fruit.
Summary: The Bible says, “Man became a living soul” is changed to, “Man had a soul put in him.” There is a world of difference in a person being a living soul and a person having a soul in them. Both man and animals are a living soul, neither one have a soul in them. If the breath of life in his nostrils in Genesis 2:7 makes a person have an immortal part (spirit) living in him or her that cannot die, then "all in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life" in Genesis 7:22 would also prove all beasts, birds, and fish have the same immortal something living in them that cannot die that would be in persons.
GOD IS A LIVING BEING (Not God has a soul in Him)
1. “Moreover, I will make My dwelling among you, and My soul (nehphesh) will not reject you” (Leviticus 26:11).
2. “I then will destroy your high places, and cut down your incense altars, and heap your remains on the remains of your idols; for My soul (nehphesh) shall abhor you” (Leviticus 26:30).
o I know of no one that believes God has “an invisible, no substance” something in Him that can exist apart from Him. His soul (nehphesh) is His person, His being—life, not an immortal soul living in the immortal God, just as a soul of a person or animal is the life (the living being) of the person or animal, not an immortal being in them.
ANIMALS ARE "SOULS" nehphesh– a living creature
Animals ARE souls–a living being, not animals HAVE souls–an immaterial, invisible, no substance, deathless something. In Genesis 1:20; 1:21; 1:24; 1:30, most translations try to hide this. WHY? Why is it translated "living creature" when used referring to animals, and the same word is changed and translated "soul" when used referring to a person? There is no excuse or defense for it; it is a deliberate attempt by the translators, who did not believe God's word as it is, to mislead there readers; all Bible teachers should point this out to all they teach (James 3:1). If "the living soul" (nehphesh) is an immortal something in a person, then bugs, all sea creatures, all birds, and all animals have an immortal soul. In Genesis "Living soul" is used more of these creatures than it is of man.
Passages in which soul (nehphesh) is speaking of animals being souls but is deliberately hid from the English readers that the word nehphesh—souls is used.
1. Genesis 1:20 "Then God said, Let the waters swarm with swarms of living souls (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals)."
2. Genesis 1:21 "And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living soul (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) that moves wherewith the waters swarmed."
3. Genesis 1:24 "And God said, Let the earth bring forth living souls (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) after their kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth after their kind."
4. Genesis 2:19 “And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called a living creature (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals), that was its name.”
5. Genesis 1:30 “And to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the sky and to every thing that moves on the earth which has life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals).
6. Genesis 9:10 "And with ever living creature (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) that is with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you."
7. Genesis 9:12 “This is the covenant which I am making between Me and you and ever living creature (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) that is with you.”
8. Genesis 9:15 “And I will remember My covenant, which is between Me and you and ever living creature (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of all flesh.”
9. Genesis 9:16 “When the bow is in the cloud, then I will look upon it, to remember the everlasting covenant between God and ever living creature (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of all flesh that is on the earth.”
10. Leviticus 11:10 “But whatever is in the seas and in the rivers, that do not have fins and scales among all the teeming life of the water, and among all the living creatures (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) that are in the water, they are detestable things to you.”
11. Leviticus 11:46 “This is the law regarding the animal, and the bird, and every living thing (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) that swarms on the earth.”
12. Leviticus 17:11 “For the life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls (lives--soul–nehphesh, used referring to men); for it is the blood by reason of the life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) that makes atonement.” The exact same word in the same sentence in the Hebrew (nehphesh) is translated life when referring to animals and is translated soul when referring to mankind!
13. Leviticus 22:11 “But if the priest buy any souls (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals that are to be used as food) with his money, he shall eat of it, and he that is born in his house: they shall eat of his meat” King James Version.
14. Leviticus 24:18 “And the one who takes the life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of an animal shall make it good, life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) for life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals).” “And he that killest a beast (soul–nehphesh) shall make it good, beast (soul-nehphesh) for beast (soul-nehphesh)” King James Version.
15. Numbers 31:28 "One soul (nehphesh life, used referring to both man and animals) of five hundred, of the persons and of the beeves, and of the asses, and of the sheep."
16. Job 41:1 “Leviathan,” (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) is used six times in the Bible, probably a crocodile (Job 41:21). From over 870 times nehphesh is used, this is the only time nehphesh is translated breath in the Kings James Version. After all, they could not have a crocodile, a sea monster, or whatever it was having an "immortal soul" for then they would have to put it in Heaven or Hell for an immortal crocodile could never die and would have to be somewhere for all eternity.
17. Ezekiel 47:9 “And it will come about that every living creature (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) which swarms in every place where the river goes.”
18. "For the life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to man and to animals) of every creature is the blood of it" Leviticus 17:14, Genesis 9:4.
19. Deuteronomy 12:23 “Only be sure not to eat the blood, for the blood is the life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals), and you shall not eat the life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) with the flesh.”
20. Job 12:10 "In whose hand is the life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to man and to animals) of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind?"
21. Proverbs 12:10 "A righteous man has regard for the life (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of his beast."
22. And many more, but if this does not convict anyone that all living being are a soul nothing will. Note how the translators tried to hide this from their readers.
Many believe, "The living soul" in Genesis 2:7 is the one distinctive thing that makes a person different from an animal, but if this makes a person have an immortal soul in them, there is no way around all living things having immortal souls in them. In these passages bugs, birds, fish, persons, are all a nehphesh, a "living beings," not a deathless, immaterial something.
JOHN T. WILLIS: "Verse 7 affirm that a person's life is God-given. God enables a person to breathe, and thus, to be alive, as he does other creatures (see Genesis 7:22). Some have tried to justify a threefold division of man into flesh (or body), soul, and spirit from Genesis 2:7. They equate dust with flesh or body, breath with spirit, and insist that the last phrase of the verse must be translated as 'a living soul.' However, this understanding reads more into the biblical text than it really says. (1) The Hebrew words for 'flesh' or 'body' and 'spirit' do not occur in this passage. (2) The Hebrew expression nehphesh chayyah, which some insist on translating 'a living soul,' is used of fish and marine life in Genesis 1:30; and beasts and birds in 2:19. If 'soul' means the eternal part of a person or the sum total of man's 'body' and 'spirit' in Genesis 2:7, it must mean the eternal part of a fish or the sum total of a fish's 'body' and 'spirit' in Genesis 1:20, 21; etc. (3) The flow of the context in Genesis 2:7 indicates that the word translated being in RSV (nehphesh) means the whole person. The author's emphasis is on the gift of life" "The Living Word Commentary On the Old Testament – Genesis," page 103-104, Sweet Publishing Company, 1979, church of Christ.
ERDMANN DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE: "Far from referring simply to one aspect of a person, 'soul' refers to the whole person" page 1245.
HOLMAN BIBLE DICTIONARY: "A human being is a totality of being, not a combination of various parts and impulses. According to the Old Testament understanding, a person is not a body, which happens to possess a soul. Instead, a person is a living soul...Because of God's breath of life; the man became 'a living being' (Gen. 2:7). A person thus is a complete totality, made up of human flesh, spirit (best understood as "the life-force'), and nephesh (best understood as "the total self' but often translated as 'soul')" page 61.
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPEDIA: "There is not dualism in the sense of separation, as though there could be full man either as body alone or as soul alone...together they make up the one man" Volume 1, page 134.
HASTINGS BIBLE DICTIONARY: “Soul is throughout the great part of the Bible simply the equivalent of ‘life’ embodied in living creature.”
T. PIERCE BROWN: "A consideration of EVERY passage in which these terms are used leads us to the consideration that the term 'soul' is a term that was applied in the Bible to every being that normally has sensory capacities (life), whether or not they have that capacity when the term is used referring to them. For example, one might see a body of a dead person and say, 'That poor soul is dead.' The Bible uses the term that way, even as we do, and it has nothing at all to do with the immorality or mortality of a soul. It simply means that the PERSON (the one who HAD life-soul-sensory capacity) is dead." "Soul and Spirit" Gospel Advocate, June 14, 1979, church of Christ.
(1) Nehphesh (soul): When nehphesh is used referring only to animals, it is translated nine different ways in the King James Version.
1. Creature (soul–nehphesh) Genesis 1:21; 1:24; 2:19; 9:10; 2:12; Leviticus 11:46
2. Thing (soul–nehphesh) Leviticus 11:10. Ezekiel 47:9
3. Life (soul–nehphesh) Genesis 1:20; 1:30; Leviticus 17:10-14 - 2 times
4. The life (soul–nehphesh) Genesis 9:4; Deuteronomy 12:23; Proverbs 12:10
5. Beast (soul–nehphesh) Leviticus 24:18
6. A soul (soul–nehphesh) Job 12:10
7. Breath (soul–nehphesh) Job 41:21
8. A fish (soul–nehphesh) Isaiah 19:10
9. Her (soul–nehphesh) Jeremiah 2:24
(2) Nehphesh (soul): When it is used referring to BOTH Animals and Man, it is translated in three different ways.
1. Creature (soul–nehphesh) Genesis 9:15; 9:16
2. The life (soul–nehphesh) Leviticus 17:11; 17:14
3. Soul (soul–nehphesh) Numbers 31:28
(3) Nehphesh (soul): When it has the animal appetites and desires of Man, when the material nature of a person is being referred to, nehphesh is translated in five different ways, (1) pleasure, (2) lust, (3) appetite, (4) greedy (5) and soul.
1. Nehphesh is translated pleasure (soul–nehphesh) Deuteronomy 23:24
2. Nehphesh is translated lust (soul–nehphesh) Psalm 78:18
3. Nehphesh is translated appetite (soul–nehphesh) Proverbs 23:2. Ecclesiastes 6:7
4. Nehphesh is translated greedy (soul–nehphesh) Isaiah 56:11
5. Nehphesh is translated soul (Nehphesh).
Fifteen material–physical things a "soul–person–nehphesh" does.
1. A soul dried away Numbers 11:6
2. A soul can be utterly destroyed Joshua 10:28
3. A soul can be saved from physical danger by fleeing (running away from danger) Jeremiah 51:6
4. A soul can be keep back from the pit-grave (for a short time) Job 33:18
5. A soul can be deliver from death Psalm 33:10
6. A soul longs to eat flesh Deuteronomy 12:20; can be hunger Proverbs 19:15; Proverbs 6:30; can eat Leviticus 7:25
7. A soul lusts Deuteronomy 12:15; 12:21; 14:26. A soul lusts after Deuteronomy 12:20
8. A soul desires Deuteronomy 14:26; 1 Samuel 2:16. A soul desired figs Micah 7:1
9. A soul loathes Deuteronomy 21:5; Proverbs 27:7
10. A soul abhorred Job 33:20; Psalm 107:18
11. A soul breaths 1 Kings 20:32
12. A soul can be bought and sold with money Leviticus 22:11; Ezekiel 27:13
13. A soul can touch unclean things and be unclean, bodies of dead persons, dead beast, creeping thing, Leviticus 5:2
14. A soul can refused to touch Job 6:7
15. A soul can be dead and a dead soul can be touched by living persons Numbers 19:11
A SOUL (PERSON-NEHPHESH) CAN BE HUNGRY,
HAVE AN APPETITE, BE THIRSTY, EAT MEAT
"Men do not despise a thief if he steals to satisfy himself (nehphesh—living being) when he is hungry" (Proverbs 6:30). An example of how well the translators hid the fact that this is the same word that they translated soul in other places when they did not want you to see it.
"I will set my face against that soul (nehphesh—living being) that eats blood, and will cut him off from among his people" (Leviticus 17:10).
"And you shall say, I will eat flesh, because your soul (nehphesh—living being) desires to eat flesh; you may eat flesh, after all the desire of your soul (nehphesh—living being)" (Deuteronomy 12:20). An immaterial something eating material flesh!
"And it shall be as when a hungry man dreams and, behold, he eats; but he awakes, and his soul (nehphesh—living being) is empty; or as when a thirsty man dreams, and behold, he drinks; but he awakes, and, behold, he is faint, and his soul (nehphesh—living being) has appetite" (Isaiah 29:8).
SOUL IS THE LIFE, NOT AN IMMORTAL SOMETHING
“You shall not eat flesh with its life (nehphesh—living being)” (Genesis 9:4).
“For the life (nehphesh—living being) of the flesh” (Leviticus 17:11; 17:14).
“Those who seek my life (nehphesh—living being)” (Psalm 38:12).
“For those who sought the Child’s life (soul–psukee) are dead’ (Matthew 2:20).
Many more passage that show that both nehphesh and psukee are the life of the person or animal, not in immortal something that has it’s own life and lives after the person is dead.
IF A SOUL CAN DIE
IT CANNOT BE IMMORTAL
Can whatever is intended by the Hebrew word "nehphesh" die? The Bible says over 320 times that a nehphesh (soul):
1. Can die
2. Can be killed by man
3. Or that it is already dead
If it can die, then whatever "nehphesh" is translated into IS something that can die. If the many words that "nehphesh" is translated into is something that can die, then a soul cannot be immortal, and a soul can die. To say that "nehphesh" (soul) is immortal and cannot die makes the Bible be wrong repeatedly. If a soul (nehphesh) is immortal and cannot die, the writers of the Bible did not know it.
SOULS CAN DIE, CAN BE DEAD
(1). Souls (nehpheshs) can die Numbers 23:10, Ezekiel 18:4, 20, Joshua 11:11. "They smote (killed) all the souls (nehphesh)” King James Version. “And they struck every person (nehpheshs) who was in it with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them; there was no one left who breathed” New American Standard Bible. An immortal soul can die or be utterly destroy. Not only does the Bible not say a soul is immortal, it denies it by saying often that a soul can die, can be killed, or a soul is already dead.
(2). Souls (nehpheshs) can be murdered. Deuteronomy 12:23; Numbers 35:11-15.
(3). Souls (nehpheshs) can be killed Leviticus 24:17. An immortal soul can be killed? "Kills any person" (soul-nehphesh) Numbers 35:11, 15, 30, 31.
(4). Souls (nehpheshs) can be smote with the sword and utterly destroyed Joshua 11:11.
(5). Souls (nehpheshs) can be slain. An immortal soul can be slain? Deuteronomy 27:25.
(6). Souls (nehpheshs) can be destroyed. An immortal soul can be destroyed? Leviticus 23:30.
(7). Souls (nehpheshs) can be taken away 1 Kings 19:4.
(8). Souls (nehpheshs) can be sought to kill it Jeremiah 44:30.
(9). Souls (nehpheshs) cannot be kept alive. An immortal soul that cannot die, but it cannot be kept alive? Psalm 22:29.
(10). Souls (nehpheshs) have blood and can bleed. "The blood of the souls (nehpheshs) of the poor" Jeremiah 2:34.
Passages In The King James Version
That Hid The Fact That A Soul Can And Does Die
(1). “Let us not kill him” (soul-nehphesh). “Let us not take his life” (soul-nehphesh) New American Standard, Genesis 37:21.
(2). "Life for life (soul–nehphesh) Immortal soul for immortal soul?" Exodus 21:23.
(3). "Any dead body (soul–nehphesh)" Leviticus 21:11.
(4). And he that killeth a beast shall make it good beast (soul–nehphesh) for beast (soul–nehphesh)” Leviticus 24:17 K.J.V, “Life (soul–nehphesh) for life (soul nehphesh) (soul for soul?)"
(5). “Whosoever is defiled by he dead” (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 5:2.
(6). “He shall come at no dead body” (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 6:6 KJV. "He shall not go near to a dead person (soul-nehphesh).”
(7). “And he that killeth any man (soul–nehphesh) shall surely be put to death. And he that killeth a beast shall make it good beast (soul–nehphesh) for beast (soul–nehphesh)” (soul for soul?) Leviticus 24:17-18 K.J.V. "And if a man takes the life (soul–nehphesh) of any human being." Does anyone believe a person can take an immortal, immaterial soul of any human being?
(8). "Because of a dead person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 6:11.
(9). "Defiled by the dead body of a man (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 9:6- 7.
(10). "Unclean by reason of a dead body (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 9:10.
(11). "He that toucheth the dead body of any man” (soul–nehphesh) Numbers 19:11. “The one who touches the corpse of any person (soul–nehphesh)."
(12). “Whosoever toucheth the dead body (soul–nehphesh) of any man that is dead” " Numbers 19:13 KJV. "Anyone who touches a corpse, the body (soul–nehphesh) of a man who has died.” How could anyone touch the corpse of something that has no substance and cannot die? By today’s definition of soul this says an immaterial deathless something is dead, and this immaterial something is touched by man. Why did they not translate this “soul”? It would have destroyed their pagan belief if they had.
(13). "Whosoever has killed any person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 31:19.
(14). “Which killeth any person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 35:11.
(15). "Everyone that kills any person (soul–nehphesh) " Numbers 35:15.
(16). "Whoso kills any person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 35:30.
(17). “And slay him” (soul–nehphesh) Deuteronomy 19:6 KJV. "And take his life (soul–nehphesh)"
(18). "And strikes him so that he (soul–nehphesh) dies" Deuteronomy 19:11.
(19). "Life (soul-nehphesh) for life (soul–nehphesh), eye for eye, tooth for tooth" Deuteronomy 19:21.
(20). "A man rises against his neighbor and murders him (soul-nehphesh)" Deuteronomy 22:26.
(21). "Cursed be he who takes a bride to slay an innocent person (soul–nehphesh)" Deuteronomy 27:25.
(23). "And deliver our lives (souls–nehpheshs) from death" Joshua 2:13. Not, “Our immortal souls from death.”
(24). "Who kills any person (soul–nehphesh)" Joshua 20:9. Not, “Who kills any immortal soul that cannot be killed.”
(25). "That kills any person (soul–nehphesh)" Joshua 20:3.
(26). "Let me (soul–nehphesh) die" Judges 16:30. "Let my soul that cannot die, die anyway?"
(27). "And you lose your life (soul–nehphesh), with the lives (souls–nehphesh) of your household" Judges 18:25.
(28). "If you do not save your life (soul–nehphesh) tonight" 1 Samuel 19:11.
(29). "The death of all the persons (souls–nehpheshs) of your father's house" 1 Samuel 22:22.
(30). "He that seeks my life (soul–nehphesh) seeks your life (soul–nehphesh)" 1 Samuel 22:23.
(31). "He is seeking my life (soul–nehphesh)" 1 Samuel 20:1.
(32). "And David saw that Saul was come out to seek his life (soul–nehphesh)" 1 Samuel 23:15
(33). "Deliver him that smote his brother, that we may kill him for the life (soul–nehphesh) of his brother whom he slew" 2 Samuel 14:7.
(34). "Who today have saved your life (soul–nehphesh) and the lives (souls-nehpheshs) of your sons and daughter, the lives (soul–nehphesh) of your wives, and the lives (souls-nehpheshs) of your concubines" 2 Samuel 19:5.
(35). "Have you asked for the life (soul–nehphesh) of your enemies" 1 Kings 3:11.
(36). "Prolong my life (soul–nehphesh)" Job 6:11. Prolong the life of an immortal soul?
(37). "For himself that he might die, and said, It is enough; now, O Lord, take my life (soul-nehphesh)" 1 Kings 19:4.
(38). "A man that dose violence to the blood of any person (soul–nehphesh) shall flee unto the pit; let no man stay him" Proverbs 28:17.
(39). "Ammon has sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to take your life (soul-nehphesh)...wherefore should he take your life (soul–nehphesh)" Jeremiah 40:14-15.
(40). "By shedding blood and destroying lives (nehphesh—living being)" Ezekiel 22:27.
Passages In The King James Version
That Clearly Says A Soul Can Die, Or That A Soul Already Dead
The same word (nehphesh) that many times was translated life or person that will die or is already dead is changed and translated into an immortal, deathless soul (nehphesh) that is in a person (nehphesh) unto the person’s (nehphesh) death, but it (nehphesh) is not the person (nehphesh); nevertheless that deathless, immortal soul (nehphesh) will die just as the mortal person (nehphesh) that it (nehphesh) is in will die, or that it (nehphesh) is already dead.
(1). “Whatsoever soul (life–nehphesh) it be that doest any work in the same day, the same soul (life–nehphesh) will I destroy" Leviticus 23:30 K. J. V. That person (soul–nehphesh) will I destroy."
(2). "And they smote all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them; there were none left that breathed" Joshua 11:11.
(3). "He utterly destroyed them and all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein; he left none remaining" Joshua 10:28.
(4). "And he smote it with the edge of the sword, and all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein; he left none remaining in it" Joshua 10:30.
(5). "And all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein" Joshua 10:32.
(6). "And all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein he utterly destroyed that day" Joshua 10:35.
(7). "But he utterly destroyed it, and all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein" Joshua 10:37.
(8). "And he captured it and its king and all its cities, and they smote them with the edge of the sword, and utterly destroyed all the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that were therein" Joshua 10:39. Can immortal souls be utterly destroyed with the sword?
(9). "That his soul (person–nehphesh) was vexed to death" Judges 16:16 "annoyed to death" New American Standard Version. We say, "He worried me to dead."
(10). “Yet thou huntest my soul” (life–nehphesh) 1 Samuel 24:11 KJV. "You are lying in wait for my soul (life–nehphesh) to take it" New American Standard Version.
(11). "To pursue you and to seek your soul (life–nehphesh) 1 Samuel 25:29. Note: sometimes nehphesh was translated “seek your soul” and some times the same word was translated “seek your life.” See 12-21 below. Did they think the Hebrew word nehphesh is a mortal person that both can and will die, or an immortal soul that cannot die?
(12) “Which sought you life” (nehphesh) 2 Samuel 4:8
(13) “Seeking my life” (nehphesh) 2 Samuel 16:11
(14) “Take away my life” (nehphesh) 1. Kings 19:10
(15) “They seek my life, (nehphesh) to take it away” 1 Kings19:14
(16) “Seek after my soul” (nehphesh) Psalm 35:4
(17) “Seek after my life” (nehphesh) Psalm 38:12
(18) “Seek after my soul” (nehphesh) Psalm 40:14
(19) “Let all those that seek thee” (nehphesh) Psalm 40:16
(20) “To slay thee” (nehphesh) Jeremiah 40:14
(21) Many more
(22). "The blood of the souls (persons–nehpheshs) of the innocent poor" Jeremiah 2:34. Dose an immaterial, invisible soul that is in a person, that has no substance, but it has blood!
(23). "To slay the souls (persons–nehpheshs) that should not die and to save the souls (persons–nehpheshs) alive that should not live" Ezekiel 13:19. If a soul were something that is immortal and cannot die, this passage is completely nonsense.
(24). “He spared not their soul (nehphesh) from death” (Psalms 78:50).
(25). "Like a roaring lion ravening the prey: they have devoured souls (nehphesh—living being)" Ezekiel 22:25.
(26) “The soul of every living thing” (nehphesh—living being) King James Version (Job 12:10). “In whose hand is the life (nehphes) of every living thing."
(27). "He did not spare their soul (nehphesh—living being) from death, but gave over their life to the plague, and smote all the firstborn in Egypt" (Psalm 78:50).
(28). "The soul (person–nehphesh) who sins will die" Ezekiel 18:4.
(29). Ezekiel 18:20
o "The SOUL (person–nehphesh) that sins, IT SHALL DIE" King James Version.
o "The PERSON (nehphesh) who sins SHALL DIE" New Revised Standard Version.
o "The PERSON (nehphesh) who sins WILL DIE" New American Standard Version, and New Revised English Bible.
o “It is the PERSON (nehphesh) who sins that WILL DIE” The Revised English Bible.
o "The PERSON (nehphesh) who sins is the one who WILL DIE" New Century Version, Holman, and Christian Standard Bible.
o “It is for a MAN’S (nehphesh) own sins that he WILL DIE” The Living Bible.
o “The PERSON (nehphesh) who sins will be the one who DIES” New Living Translation.
o “Only THOSE (persons-nehphesh) who sin will be PUT TO DEATH” Contemporary English Version.
o “Only THE ONE (person–nehphesh) who sins SHALL DIE” The New American Bible (Catholic), and Today's New International Version.
o “The PERSON (nehphesh) who sins WILL DIE” God Word Translation.
o “PEOPLE (nehphesh) WILL DIE because of their own sins” New International Reader's Version.
This is a person dying (being put to death) for a sin under the Old Testament law, but is almost always used referring to something that cannot die by those who believe there is a soul that will not die when the person it was in dies. When this is misapply to some immaterial something that is believed to be in a person, as is often is, then this is an undeniable statement that the immortal something that they say cannot die will die even if the person it is in sins, and that a soul will not have everlasting life with torment. This is definitely not what they wanted, but what they made in their attempt to make there be an soul immortal. If "soul" means "an immortal something that cannot die," then James said, "Shall save an immortal something, which cannot die, from death" James 5:20. This theology makes nonsense of the Bible.
The divine sentence, "The soul that sins, it shall die" has been revised to say, "The soul that sins, it shall live eternally in torment." Not only must this be changed from "die" to "eternal life" but after making the change then torment must be added; “a soul that sins, it shall live forever being eternally torment by God.” To make it teach what many want it to teach, first, God's word must be changed and then added to.
“Shall die” in verse four is in contrast to “shall surely live” in verse nine. It is life or death of a living person under the Law that is being spoken of, not two kinds of life after death; if death is only a separation of soul and body as men teach, what is the dead of a soul; how can a soul that is alive separated from God be dead?
(30). IN OVER 320, over one third of the about 870 times that nehphesh, the Hebrew word that is translated or mistranslated soul, is used:
o A soul (nehphesh) is already dead.
o A soul (nehphesh) can die, and can be killed.
o A soul (nehphesh) can be buried.
o A soul (nehphesh) can be sought to be killed.
o A soul (nehphesh) can be murdered.
o A soul (nehphesh) can be delivered from death.
o A soul (nehphesh) can be smote (killed).
o A soul (nehphesh) can be affected.
o A soul (nehphesh) can be cut off.
In most of these passages the translators of the King James and other translations have hidden from the readers that the very thing they believe to be immortal and cannot die does die by picking when they translated nehphesh into soul and picking when to translate "nehphesh" into "life," "person" and many other words, but even in the King James Version there are many passages which say souls (nehpheshs) can and do die.
SOULS CAN BE KILLED BY OTHERS
o "We feared greatly for our soul (nehphesh—living being) because of you" (Joshua 9:24). They feared for their life, not far a deathless being that was in them.
o "All the men who were seeking your soul (nehphesh—living being) are dead" (Exodus 4:19).
o “Saul had come out to seek his life (nehphesh—living being) while David was in the wilderness” (1 Samuel 23:15).
o They had to flee to save their souls (nehphesh—living being) (2 King 7:7), their lives (nehphesh—living being) would be utterly destroyed "with the edge of the sword" or other weapons (Joshua 10:27; 10:30; 10:32; 10:35, 10:37; 10:39).
o “And deliver our lives (nehphesh—living being) from death” (Joshua 2:13).
SOULS CAN DIE FOR LACK OF FOOD
Not only could souls (nehphesh—living beings) be killed by their enemies, but souls (nehphesh—living beings) could also die for lack of food (Lamentations 1:11; Numbers 11:6).
SOULS CAN EAT FOOD
o Leviticus 7:18; 7:20; 7:25; 7:27 and others.
o Also, Genesis 9:4; 9:5; 12:13; 17:14; 19:17; 19:19; 19:20; 32:30; 32:31; 35:18; 37:21; Exodus 21:23; 30:12; 30:15; 31:14; Leviticus 7:21; 17:11; 17:12; 17:14; 19:8; 21:1; 21:11; 22:3; 24:17; 24:18; Numbers 5:2; 6:6; 9:6; 9:7; 9:10; 9:18; 19:11; 19:13; 19:20; 23:10; 31:19; 35:11; 35:15; 35:30; 35:31; Deuteronomy 12:23; Joshua 11:11; 20:3; 20:9; Judges 5:28; 12:3; 16:16; 18:25; Ruth; 4:15; 1 Samuel 1:19; 1: 20; 1:23; 23:15; 23:20; 25:29; 28:9; 28:21; 2 Samuel 4:8; 14:7; 16:11; 19:5; 19:6; 1 Kings 1:12; 1:29; 3:11; 17:21; 17:22; 19:10; 19:14; 20:32; 2 Kings 1:13; 19:24; 1 Chronicles 11:19; 2 Chronicles 11:11; Esther 7:7; Job 13:14; 30:16; 33:18; 33:22; 36:14; Psalm 7:2; 17:13; 22:20; 22:21; 22:29: 22:30; 31:13; 33:19; 35:4; 35:17; 38:12; 38:13; 70:2; 70:3; 71:10; Proverbs 1:19; 7:23; 12:10; 13:3; 23:14; Isaiah 10:18; 43:4; Jeremiah 2:34; 4:30; 34:20-21; 38:2; 38:16; 39:18; 40:15; 44:30; 45:5; 49:37; Ezekiel 17:17; 18:4; 18:20; 18:27; 22:25; 22:27; Jonah 4:3; 4:6.
Summary: The "nehphesh (soul)" of the Old Testament is an earthly being, man, animal, or sea creature; souls (nehphesh) can be either living souls or dead souls (dead persons or animals). The "nehphesh (soul)" can die, it can be dead, be killed, be sought to kill, be smote, die from a lack of food or water, be cut off, be murdered, be delivered from death, be born, live, sorrow, eat, drink water, desire, be discontented, be grieved, be bound with a bond, be affected, loathes, lust, have anguish, etc. Not one of the about 870 times that nehphesh is used does it have reference to an invisible, immaterial something in a person that has no substance and cannot die. Nehphesh in the Old Testament and psukee in the New Testament are together used about 967 times with over one-third being associated with the death of a soul (person). Some (nehpheshs–souls) are dead. Some are dying. Some are in fear of death. Some have those who are trying to kill them. Some are saved from death, etc. On the other hand, in the 976 times soul is used, not one time is a soul said to be deathless or immortal.
In about thirty-two passages souls (nehpheshs) are spoken of as being killed by man “And he that kills any man (nehphesh) shall surely be put to death. And he that kills a beast (nehphesh) shall make it good; beast (nehphesh) for beast (nehphesh)” Leviticus 24:17-18. Nehphesh–soul is used four times in the Hebrew, but because of the bias of the translators not one time is it translated soul in the King James Version. They changed soul into beast to deliberately hide from their readers that animals, the same as men, are souls—living beings that can and do die. (See Joshua 10:28; 30; 32; 35; 37; 39; Deuteronomy 27:25; Leviticus 24:17-18).
THE WAY THE FOUR TIMES NEHPHSH IS USED
IN LEVITICUS 24:17-18 IS TRANSLATED
As it is in the Hebrew
o “And he that kills any NEHPHESH shall surely be put to death. And he that kills a NEHPHESH shall make it good; NEHPHESH for NEHPHESH.”
As it is in the King James Version
o “And he that kills any MAN shall surely be put to death. And he that kills a BEAST shall make it good; BEAST for BEAST.”
As it is in the New American Standard Bible
o “And if a man takes the LIFE of any human being, he shall surely be put to death. And the one who takes the LIFE of an animal shall make it good, LIFE for LIFE.”
In about thirteen passages souls (nehpheshs) of men are said to be actually dead (see Numbers 6:6; Leviticus 21:11). In many of these passages, the King James Version and others translated nehphesh as life or body; and the English reader cannot see that animals are souls (are living beings), and that man kills souls of both men and animals, and sometimes souls are actually dead. Under the Law anyone that touched a dead body was unclean. “Dead body” (nehphesh) Leviticus 21:11 “Dead body” (nehphesh) Numbers 6:6. Corpses are dead souls, and anyone who came in contact with a dead soul was unclean.
Most of the times when it is translated "soul," even those who believe in a part of a person that lives after death and before the resurrection admits it is not used to mean a deathless immortal something that is or had been in a person, something that will live without the person after the person is dead. The whole person dies unto the resurrection (Matthew 10:28; Matthew 16:26; James 5:20). Not just the person's body.
This clearly shows that the meaning of the Hebrew word nehphesh is something that is not immortal, and that it can die, or that it can be already dead. There is no other word in the Bible that could be translated into Plato's immortal soul; therefore, the translators had to use this word and hide, the best they could, the fact that a nehphesh can and does die.
Of the hundreds of times Nehphesh is used in the Old Testament only five are used in the same passage as sheol. Of these five in the Kings James Version sheol is translated Hell three times (Psalm 16:10; 86:13; Proverbs 23:14). The other two they had to translate grave (Psalm 30:3; 89:48). In all five a nehphesh (soul–life) is delivered from or brought up from sheol (grave). What is said in all five is as far from today’s teaching on Hell as it is possible to be. The New International Version translates sheol into grave in all five passages, and translates nehphesh into, (1) me, (2) himself, (3) me, (4) me, (5) and soul.
The only way for the translators to hide that a nehphesh of the Old Testament can die, bleed, be dead was by rightly translating it as something mortal as it is. In most translations nehphesh is sometimes translated to be immortal, sometime as mortal, often in the same passages. How could it be known when it was mortal and when it was immortal? The only answer is that the translators were trying to put Plato’s immortal soul in the Bible by mistranslating when they could, but many times found nehphesh would not make sense if translated into something immortal and deathless.
Not one time is nehphesh an immortal something, but it is translated mortally in the King James Version. “And smite him mortally (nehphesh)” (Deuteronomy19:11).
The Companion Bible, Appendix 13 says nehphesh (life-soul) is used:
Just one of the many examples of the absurdity of the translations of nehphesh in the King James Version with the meaning of "soul" as it is used today, an invisible, no substance something that is in a person that no one has ever seen, that no one can see this immortal something that cannot be seen. "For mine enemies speak against me; and they that lay wait for my soul (nehphesh) take counsel together" (Psalm 71:10). How could anyone lay in wait (ambush) for an undying invisible something that is now in a person that no one can see? How could anyone kill something that cannot die even if they could see it?
"Deliver my soul" (nehphesh) Psalm 17:13 in today's English would be "Save my life" (nehphesh).
Many more times "soul" (nehphesh) would only make sense if translated "life." To apply today's meaning, "an undying invisible something that is now in a person" makes many passages be total nonsense. Today's meaning of "soul" is very different from the meaning of nehphesh in Biblical times, which makes "soul" be a mistranslation. When anyone reads the Bible, and reads "soul," and knows only what the word "soul" means today, they cannot understand what God said. Many English translations use "soul" and "person" interchangeable. The Revised Standard uses "person" frequently where the King James used "soul." The problem is that most English readers would not know that when the translators said a "person" died, that the translators are hiding the fact that "person" (soul-nehphesh) is the same word that is translated "soul" in many places. Why did some translators do this? Was it because they did not believe an immortal "soul" can die, but a person can die? If a "soul" (nehphesh) dies, it would not be immortal; therefore, they were forced to use "person" or "life" in many places to hide the fact from you that a nehphesh can die. The truth is that they were trying to put "soul" with today's meaning in the Bible despite the fact that it is not. If they had been consistent in translating, they would not have been able to add the doctrine of an undying soul in the Bible.
"The Lord of hosts has sworn by Himself (soul-nehphesh)" (Jeremiah 51:14). By His own being or person. God "could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself (psukee-soul)" (Hebrews 6:13). Not even the King James translators wanted God to have an invisible something in Him that would live after the He was dead. God's nehphesh and man's nehphesh are their being, person, not an invisible something that is in God or in a person.
All the Old Testament words, which are translated life, spirit, breath, or soul, are all used referring to both persons and animals. Every word that is used to prove a person has an immortal soul or an immortal spirit would also prove all breathing creatures have an immortal soul or an immortal spirit if they proved a person does.
(1) NEHPHESH/SOUL-LIFE-LIVING BEING is used to describe all living beings.
(2) NSHAHMAH/BREATH is also used to describe all living being/breath of life; all living things that breathes (Used 24 times in the Hebrew Old Testament).
o Used to describe man, "Breathed into his nostrils the BREATH of life" Genesis 2:7; 1 Kings 17:17; Job 27:3.
o Used to describe man and animals, both man and animals have the same nshahmah (breath of life-spirit).
o "All in whose nostrils was the BREATH (nshahmah) of the spirit of life, of all that was on the dry land, died" Genesis 7:22. All living being, man, and animals.
o "But of the cities of these peoples, that Jehovah your God gives you for an inheritance, you shall save alive nothing that BREATHS (nshahmah)" Deuteronomy 20:16. All living being, both man and animals.
o "So Joshua smote all the land, the hill-country, and the South, and the lowland, and the slopes, and all their kings: he left none remaining, but he utterly destroyed all that BREATHED (nshahmah)" Joshua 10:40. All living being, both man and animals that had life, that breathed (nshahmah) were killed.
o "And they smote all the souls that were therein with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them; there were none left that BREATHED (nshahmah)" Joshua 11:11. All living being, both man and animals that breathed were killed.
o Also, Joshua 11:14; 1 Kings 15:29; Job 34:14; Psalm 150:6.
Not one of the 24 times nshahmah is used says anything about anything that is immortal.
Nshahmah as it is translated in the New International Version.
1. Genesis 2:7 “Breathed into his nostrils the breath (nshahmah) of life.”
2. Genesis 7:22 “Everything on dry land that had the breath of life (nshahmah) in its nostrils died.”
3. Deuteronomy 20:16 “Do not leave alive anything that breathes (nshahmah).”
4. Joshua 10:40 “He totally destroyed all who breathed (nshahmah).”
5. Joshua 11:11 “They totally destroyed them, not sparing anything that breathed (nshahmah).”
6. Joshua 11:14 “But all the people they put to the sword until they completely destroyed them, not sparing anyone that breathed (nshahmah).”
7. 2 Samuel 22:16 “At the blast of breath (nshahmah) from his nostrils.”
8. 1 Kings 15:29 “He did not leave Jeroboam anyone that breathed (nshahmah), but destroyed them all.”
9. 1 Kings 17:17 “He grew worse and worse, and finally stopped breathing (nshahmah).”
10. Job 4:9 (Hebrew dualism in Job—the same thing said in two different ways).
o “At the breath (ruach) of God they are destroyed:
o At the blast (nshahmah) of his anger they perish.”
11. Job 26:4
o “Who has helped you utter these words?
o And whose spirit (nshahmah) spoke from your mouth?”
12. Job 27:3
o “As long as I have life (ruach) within me,
o The breath (nshahmah) of God in my nostrils.”
13. Job 32:8
o “But it is the spirit (ruach) in a man,
o The breath (nshahmah) of the Almighty.”
14. Job 33:4
o “The Spirit of God made me;
o The breath (nshahmah) of the Almighty gives me life.”
15. Job 34:14-15 “If it was his intention and he withdrew his spirit and breath (nshahmah).
o All mankind would perish together,
o And man would return to the dust.”
16. Job 37:10
o “The tempest comes out from its chamber, the cold from the driving winds.
o The breath (nshahmah) of God produces ice, and the broad waters become frozen.”
17. Psalm 18:15 “O Lord, at the blast (nshahmah) of breath from your nostrils.”
18. Psalm 150:6 “Let everything that has breath (nshahmah) praise the Lord.”
19. Proverbs 20:27 “The lamp of the Lord searches the spirit (nshahmah) of a man; it searches out his inmost being.”
20. Isaiah 2:22 “Stop trusting in man, who has but a breath (nshahmah) in his nostrils.”
21. Isaiah 30:33 “The breath (nshahmah) of the Lord, like a stream of burning sulfur, sets it ablaze.”
22. Isaiah 42:5 “Who gives breath (nshahmah) to its people, and life to those who walk on it.”
23. Isaiah 57:16 “The breath (nshahmah) of man that I have created.” “Spirit” in King James Version.
24. Daniel 10:17 “My strength is gone and I can hardly breathe (nshahmah).”
o Of the twenty-four times nshahmah is in the Hebrew, it is translated soul only three times in the King James Version, Job 26:4, Proverbs 20:27; Isaiah 57:16.
(3) Ruach/spirit-breath: Is used of:
o God (Exodus 15:8; 2 Samuel 22:16; Isaiah 4:4)
o Spirit of the Lord (Zephaniah 4:6)
o Heavenly being (Psalm 104:4)
(4) Ruach/spirit-breath: Is also used to describe all earthly living beings.
Both ruach and nshahmah have very near if not the same meaning.
o “All in whose nostrils was the breath (nshahmah) of the spirit of life, died” (Genesis 7:22).
o "To destroy all flesh in which is the breath (ruach) of life" (Genesis 6:17).
Both are used in Hebrew dualism in Job three times as two ways of saying the same thing (Job 4:9; 27:3; 32:8).
o Job 4:9:
o “By the breath (ruach) of God they perish,
o And by the blast (nshahmah) of His anger they come to an end”
o Job 27:3:
o “All the while my breath (nshahmah) is in me,
o And the spirit (ruach) of God is in my nostrils.”
o Job 32:8:
o “But it is a spirit (ruach) in man,
o And the breath (nshahmah) of the Almighty gives them understanding.”
The above is an example of the many times ruach and nshahmush seem to be used interchangeable; they are both the breath, or the life of a living being (man or beast) that is being spoken of. Nshahmah is limited to the air or breath of the mouth of any breathing being; ruach also means any breathing being but has a must broader use in that it is also used of wind and any air movement. Neither the breath (nshahmah) of a person, or the breath (ruach) of a person is not an immortal entity added to the person that has life in itself apart from the life of the person any more then the breath (nshahmah) of God, or the breath (ruach) of God is an entity that has life in itself apart from God.
Ruach Is Translated Sixteen Different Ways
In The King James Version
Of about 389 times ruach is used in the Old Testament it is translated wind about 90 times, breath 28 times, blast 4 times, air, windy, tempest, whirlwind, tempest, and breath. Both ruach and nshahmah are basically translated with the same words, both have something to do with the breath or air without which there would be no life; in Genesis 2:7 it was when God breathed into Adam’s nostrils the breath of life (nshahmah) that Adam became a living being.
There is no suggestion in any one of the many times ruach is used referring both to mankind and to animals that ruach is an immaterial, immortal something that has it’s own life and will live after the death of the person or animal that it is in.
BREATH of man and beast (ruach-spirit)
o “All in whose nostrils was the BREATH (ruach) of life” (Genesis 6:17; 7:15).
o "By the BREATH (ruach) of his mouth" (Genesis 6:17; Psalm 104:29, Job 15:30).
o "By the BREATH (ruach-spirit) of his mouth" (Job 15:30).
o "All in whose nostrils was the BREATH (ruach-spirit) of life" (Genesis 7:22).
o "To destroy all flesh in which is the BREATH (ruach-spirit) of life" (Genesis 6:17).
o "So they went into the ark to Noah, by twos of all flesh in which was the BREATH (ruach-spirit) of life" (Genesis 7:15).
o "No BREATH (ruach-spirit) in them" (Jeremiah 10:14). Why not, "No SPIRIT (ruach-spirit) in them" or "Takes away their SPIRIT (ruach-spirit)" (Psalm 104:29)? How did the translators know when the same word was wind, breath, spirit, blast, air, mind, courage, cool, or anger? In English the meaning of some of these words are not even close to being the same; how are those who read their translation to know that these are all the same word in the Hebrew? Idols are described as not having breath (ruach) (Habakkuk 2:19) which means idols have no life just as a person without breath has no life.
o "Every goldsmith...his molten images are deceitful, and there is no BREATH (ruach-spirit) in them" (Jeremiah 51:17).
o "Takes away their BREATH (ruach-spirit)" (Psalm 104:29).
o "As one dies so dies the other; indeed, they all have the same BREATH (ruach-spirit) and there is no advantage for man over beast" (Ecclesiastes 3:19).
o "God made a WIND (ruach-spirit) to pass over" (Genesis 8:1).
o "Like the chaff, which the WIND (ruach-spirit) drives" (Psalm 1:4).
o "You did blow with your WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Exodus 15:10).
o "Clouds and WIND (ruach-spirit) without rain" (Proverbs 25:14).
o "My escape from the WINDY (ruach-spirit) storm" (Psalm 55:8).
o "A WHIRLWIND (ruach-spirit) came out of the north" (Ezekiel 1:4).
o "A destroying WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Jeremiah 51:1).
o "A strong WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Job 8:2).
o "An horrible TEMPEST (ruach-spirit)" (Psalm 11:6).
o "You shall scatter in the WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Ezekiel 5:2).
o "An east WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Exodus 10:13).
o "A mighty strong west WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Exodus 10:19).
o Psalm 1:4, Exodus 15:10
o “My escape from the WINDY