Subtitled: The Resurrection, Our Only Hope Of Life After Death
William Robert West
Author of “The Rapture And Israel”
"The Wages Of Sin Death"
"The Wages Of Sin Eternal Life
With Torment In Hell"
An Immortal Soul And The Doctrine Of Hell
Is There A Soul In You That Will Live After You Are Dead?
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RESURRECTION AND IMMORTALITY
William Robert West
There are two views that are commonly believed about what will happen to mankind after death.
VIEW ONE: The belief that all have a “soul” that W. E. Vine says is nothing but “the immaterial, invisible part of man,” (“Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary Of Old And New Testament Words,” page 588) and Robert A. Morey says, that after the death of the body the soul will be nothing but “mental thoughts” (“Death And The Afterlife,” page 79), “In as much as the soul is immaterial” (Internet Encyclopedia Of Philosophy, article “Immortality”). Will this nothing be the only part of a person that will have eternal life in Heaven? Is this immaterial something that is nothing but mental thoughts is all of you that will be in Heaven or Hell; will the person (you) be gone and nothing but thoughts will be all that is left, then all of the “you” that you know anything about will be forever be gone? Most that believe all are born with an immortal “soul” have only a vague unclear understanding or even no idea of what they believe this unknown immaterial something they believe to be in them really is, but “it” (not themselves) is what they believe must be saved, and only “it” will be in Heaven if they save “it,” or in Hell if they do not. The belief that everyone has an immaterial something in them and this something, whatever this nothing but “mental thoughts” could be, will live forever and cannot die makes it not possible for death to be the wages of sin. If a person has something in them that is deathless, it would not be subject to the wages of sin, which is death, and this deathless nothing could not ever be destroyed; this, whatever it is would be, is born with eternal life, and it could never die; therefore, it could not be resurrected from the dead.
This view has two major divisions.
1. That all mankind has a "soul" that cannot ever die or be destroyed, but for most of mankind God will forever torment this something (this nothing but mental thoughts) that is in a person, the immaterial something called "soul." It is strange to me that I can find no one that believes there is a soul that is in a person that knows what a soul is. They tell me what a soul is not, but not what they believe a soul to be; in the many books I have read, the nearest anyone has came is to say that after the soul departs from the person it was in, it will be nothing but thoughts without any kind of substance.
2. Universalism: that all mankind has a "soul" that cannot ever die or be destroyed, everyone has this something in them that will live forever, but it will be saved. If it (the immaterial something that has no substance) is not saved in this lifetime it will be saved after death.
VIEW TWO: The belief that the person you now are will put on immortality at the resurrection, and it is you (not just some immaterial something in you) that will live forever in Heaven; we, not an immaterial soul, is now in the image of Adam, we, not an immaterial soul, will have the image of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:49). The wages of sin is death, and the lost will die the second death, they do not now have immortality and never will be immortal; those who do not belong to Christ will forever be destroyed after their judgment.
Most Protestant Premillennialists believe the lost will be totally destroyed, but there are three Premillennial views that are common in Protestant churches on how or where the lost will be destroyed.
1. A common Protestant Premillennialists belief is that the destruction of the lost will be on this earth and the saved will forever live on this earth; no person will ever be in Heaven. Many believe the Valley of Gehenna will be restored and the lost will literally be burn to ashes in it.
2. Some Protestant Premillennialists believe that the saved will be with Christ in Heaven, not on earth after the thousand years, the second death will be the end of the lost, but they are not literally burned to ashes on this earth in the restored Valley of Gehenna.
3. Some Protestant Premillennialists believe the wages of sin is eternal life with torment for the soul that cannot die, which puts them in the camp of those that believe eternal life with torment, death is not the wages of sin.
If we have either a soul or a spirit that is now immortal and can never die or be dead, how could there be a resurrection of the dead? Do you believe in the resurrection of the dead? If yes, what do you believe will be resurrected; will your dead body be raised from the dead, or do you believe as many that only a soul that that they do not believe can ever be dead, but it is the only part of a person that will be raised from the dead? When I first begin this study I was surprised and made to tremble at how few believed in the resurrection, and how many there are that do not really know what they believe about it, or even what they believed would be resurrected. Many believe some deathless something that they believe to be in themselves will instantly be transited from this world to Heaven or Hell at death without a resurrection, before the resurrection, before the Judgment Day, and before the second coming of Christ, but when they are asked what is the reason for the resurrection, they not only do not know, but have never really thought about it. Death is looked at as being a doorway to life in another form, that death is not really death, and there is nowhere in their thoughts or in their faith for a resurrection for their theology says no one is really dead. The resurrection has been removed from the faith of many by today's theology that says some immortal something that is believed to be in a person will go to Heaven at the moment of death. But is there any life after death before the second coming of Christ and the resurrection of the dead? Paul said it will be at the resurrection when, "This mortal must put on immortality," but if we have a soul that is now immortal, then what is it that is now mortal that will put on immortality at the resurrection?
What does the Bible say about an immortal soul and/or spirit? Together soul and spirit are used about 1,600 times in the Bible, but not one time is immortal ever used in the same verse with either one, “immortality soul or spirit,” “deathless or never dying soul or spirit” is not in the Bible, not even in the King James Version. Immortal and immortality is not in the Old Testament, the promise of immortality is given to no one. In the New Testament, immortal is used only one time in the New Testament, immortality is used five times, all five by Paul. What does he say?
Why are we to "seek for immortality" if we are born immortal? Why will we "put on immortality" if the only part of us that will ever be immortal has been immortal from birth (or before birth)? The fact that a person must "seek for...immortality" and immortality must be "put on" at the resurrection is conclusive proof that a person does not now have immortality, nor does a person have some immaterial, immortal something in them that cannot die. If Romans 2:7 and 1 Corinthians 15:53 teaches nothing more, it teaches that no part of a person now possess immortality. Not one passage in the Bible says anyone is now immortal; if no one is now immortal, no one can now have a soul that is now immortal. The immortal soul theology is from pagan philosophy, if all have a deathless soul, and we are told that this deathless soul is the only part of a person that will ever be immortal, and it is already immortal, the resurrection is made to be useless.
Table of Contents
AN IMMORTAL SOUL OR RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD
The Resurrection, Our Only Hope Of Life After Death
By William West
Chapter one: The nature of man - what is man?
Chapter two: Life or Death
Chapter three: The reinterpretations of the great doctrines of the Bible
Chapter four: From where came Hell, from man or God?
Š Unquenchable fire
Š Old Testament history of Gehenna
Š Gehenna used by Christ on four occasions
Š The vanishing Hell
Š Twenty-six plus version of Hell
o Fourteen plus Protestant versions of Hell
o Eight other versions of Hell
o Three Catholic versions of Hell
Chapter five: Sheol, Hades, and Tartarus
Chapter six: The thirty-one Hell passages
Chapter seven: A strange and unexplainable silence of the Old Testament on punishment and life after death, life, death, torment, destruction, destroy, perish, die, and end
Chapter eight: Figurative language, metaphors, and symbolical passage
Š Part one: The rich man
Š Part two: The destruction of Israel, Matthew 24
o A. D. 70 doctrine
o Day of the Lord
Š Part three: The symbolic pictures in Revelation
Š Part four: The forever and ever of the King James Version
Chapter nine: Universalist: The "age lasting" Hell
Chapter ten: The results of attributing evil Pagan teachings to God
Chapter eleven: Historical proof of the changing of the teaching of the Bible
What Is Man?
What is a man? Are all persons born with immortal souls, or do only the saved put on immortality at the resurrection? Is a person a three part being, an animal body with both a soul and a spirit that will live without the body? This is one of the most important questions of all time. It has more influence on our conception of our nature, our view of life in this world, and our view of life after death than any other question.
Soul in the Old Testament is translated from nehphesh, Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature” A study of the way it is translated in the King James and how other translation differ greatly from the King James reveals facts that are far different that the belief of most about what the soul is, and facts that most will find upsetting. Nehphesh is used in the Old Testament about 870 times and is translated soul only about 473 times in the King James, but in the New International Version (2010 updated version) only 72 out about 870 times it is used.
Of the 870 times Nehphesh is in the Bible, in the New International Version:
Š Nehphesh is translated soul only 72 times.
Š Nehphesh is not translated soul 798 times.
o Of the 473 times nehphesh is translated “soul” in the King James Version, it was removed 401 times in the New International Version.
Nehphesh is translated in the King James Version into about 40 words; one Hebrew word is translated (or mistranslated) into nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc. Nehphesh is used about 870 times and was changed into many words by the translators as they chose to with the translators of the many version of the Bible all choosing many times to translate it difference. By today’s meaning of “soul” and “life” they means two completely difference things, they are not synonymous.
In the King James Version Nehphesh is translated:
In all 870 times this word is used it is associated with the activity of a living being, including dying, and it never implies anything about life after the death of the living being. None of the 870 times are an immortal, immaterial, inter something in a person that has no substance; souls (nehpheshs) are the living being (persons, animals, or any living thing) that can die, be killed, or is already be dead; although its use is often hid from the English readers by the way it was translated or mistranslated.
Soul (nehphesh) as it is used in the Bible
(1) Genesis 1:20 "The moving creature that has life" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals, Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”). Footnote in the King James Version–"The moving creature that has soul." American Standard Version–"Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures" (nehpheshs-mortal beings).
If “soul” were an immortal "immaterial, invisible part of man" (W. E. Vine, Expository Dictionary Of Old And New Testament Words), why is this Hebrew word that is translated soul also translated "living creature" when it is speaking of animals in Genesis 1:21; 1:24; 2:19; 9:10; 9:12; 9:15; 9:16 when the same Hebrew word (nehphesh) is translated "living soul" in Genesis 2:7 when it is speaking of a person? “Living Creature” and “living soul” are completely difference beings. If this Hebrew word (nehphesh) were an immaterial, immortal part of a person, it would also be an immaterial, immortal part of animals.
(2) Genesis 1:21 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to all life in the water), "And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature (nehpheshs-mortal beings) that moves wherewith the water swarmed.”
(3) Genesis 1:24 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings), used referring to animals, all life on the land), "And God said, Let the earth bring forth living creatures (soul–nehphesh) after their kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth." In Genesis 1:21-24 every living thing on earth, whether in the water or on land, every thing that has life is a nehphesh, a living being; all sea life, all land life, and mankind are a nehphesh, a living being, not inherent indestructible immortality beings, not an immortal deathless “soul.”
(4) Genesis 1:30 "life" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals), "And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the heavens, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, wherein there is life" (nehpheshs-mortal beings); animals are "a living soul."
ALL FOUR TIMES THAT SOUL (nehphesh) IS USED IN GENESIS ONE IT IS USED REFERRING TO ANIMALS Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature, i.e. animal.” NOT TO A PERSON. ANIMALS WERE SOULS, LIVING BEINGS, BEFORE ANY MAN EXISTED; WHY DID THE TRANSLATORS DELIBERATELY HIDE THE FACT THAT IT IS THE SAME WORD THAT THEY SOMETIMES TRANSLATED SOUL?
Š TRANSLATED SOULS WHEN IT IS SPEAKING OF PEOPLE.
Š TRANSLATED LIVING CREATURES WHEN THE SAME WORD IS SPEAKING OF ANIMALS. How could the translators possibly know when the same word is speaking of mortal being and when it is speaking of immortal being? Just as “up” cannot mean “down,” “Mortal” cannot mean “Immortal”
"Then God said, 'Let the waters teem with swarms of living souls (nehpheshs-mortal beings), and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens.' And God created the great sea monsters, and every living soul (nehphesh-mortal beings) that moves, with which the waters swarmed after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind; and God saw that it was good. And God blessed them, saying, 'Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.' And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day. Then God said, 'Let the earth bring forth living souls (nehpheshs-mortal beings) after their kind: cattle and creeping thing and beasts of the earth after their kind'; and it was so...and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, wherein there is life (nehpheshs-mortal beings) I have given every green herb for meat" (Genesis 1:20-30). “Living creatures" (nehpheshs-mortal beings) is used to describe all living things on earth, people, animals, birds, and fish, not eternal life or some immaterial invisible something that is in a person that is now eternal. If a person being a soul (nehphesh–a living being) makes that person be either immortal or in the image of God, then it makes animals, birds, and fish have a immortal soul in them and be in the image of God.
(5) Genesis 2:7 "A living soul" (nehphesh–a living being, used referring to a person, Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”) The first time the King James Version translated nehphesh into "soul," most other translations did not agree with it, not even the New King James Version. "Man became a living being" New King James Version.
Š “A living creature" (nehphesh-a mortal being) Genesis 1:20
Š “A living creature" (nehphesh-a mortal being) Genesis 1:21
Š “A living creature" (nehphesh-a mortal being) Genesis 1:24
Š “Wherein there is life" (nehphesh-mortal being) Genesis 1:30
Š “A living soul" (nehphesh) Genesis 2:7 "Man became a living being" New King James Version
o It is obvious that the translators of the King James Version translated according to a preconceived opinion in an attempt make persons have immortality but keep animals from having souls; they made a distinction in animals and men, a distinction that dose not exist in the Hebrew Bible.
o Genesis 2:7 Man became:
§ “A living soul" King James Version
§ "A living being" New King James Version, American Standard Version, New American Standard Version, Revised Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version, New International Version, Amplified Version, The New American Bible.
§ "A living person" New Century Version, The Living Bible, New Living Translation
§ "A living creature" The Revised English Bible, Young's Literal Translation.
§ "Life" Contemporary English Version
THREE THINGS IN GENESIS 2:7
(1) MAN AND ANIMALS ARE MADE OF THE DUST OF THE EARTH. “In the day that YOU eat from it YOU shall surely die” (Genesis 2:17). Some say Adam could not die; an immortal, immaterial, deathless soul could not die. In Genesis 3:19 a clear statement on what dies, “By the sweat of YOUR face YOU shall eat bread, till YOU return to the ground, because from it YOU were taken; for YOU are dust, and to dust YOU shall return,”(Also Genesis 18:27; Psalms103:14; Job10:9). “It is appointed for MEN to die once and after this comes judgment” (Hebrews 9:27). It is the PERSON that will die and be resurrected from the dead, not a soul that cannot die; therefore, it could not be resurrected from the dead.
Paul quoted Genesis 2:7 showing that the “natural body” of Genesis 2:7 that was given to Adam and all mankind is not the “spiritual body” that will be given to the saved by Christ at the resurrection. “Howbeit that is not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; THEN that which is spiritual. The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man is of heaven. As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. As we have born the image of the earthly, we SHALL also bear the image of the heavenly” (1 Corinthians 15:46-49).
Dr. Bert Thompson, Ph. D. says Genesis 2:7 is teaching that Adam was given “physical life.” Then said it is not teaching that Adam had instilled in him “an immortal nature.” “The Origin, Nature, and Destiny of the Soul,” page 19, Apologetics Press, Inc. 2001, church of Christ.
Mike Willis said expositors have generally appealed to Genesis 2:7 to prove that all men are born with and now have immortal spirits. However, in 1 Corinthians 15:45, Paul has clearly expounded the meaning of the Hebrew words nehphesh, chayyah. "The living soul" of Genesis 2:7 is the natural body of this passage. He said this corresponds with the book of Genesis itself because the same construction is used in Genesis 1:24 to describe animals. When Moses recorded that God breathed into man's nostrils the breath of life and he became a living soul, what the writer of Genesis was saying was that the dust of the earth began to have animal life and does not prove that a person has an immortal spirit (soul); rather it states that a person has animal life. All men possess animal life through Adam. A Commentary On Paul's First Epistle To the Corinthians, page 578, 1979. For one who knows the Bible as he does, and believes a person now has an immortal soul, yet says, the living soul of Genesis 2:7 is the natural body, proves beyond doubt that a living soul is not an immortal inter part of a person. “The first man Adam became a living soul…the first man is of the earth, earthy” (1 Corinthians 15:45-49).
Guy N. Woods said the first time the word soul is used in Genesis 1:20 it is from the Hebrew nehphesh where it is assigned to fish, birds, and creeping things. He said it is clear that the soul in these passages does not refer to anything peculiar to the constitution of man, but it signifies, as its usage denotes, and the lexicons affirm, any creature that breathes. "What Is The Soul Of Man," Gospel Advocate, 1985, Number 21.
John T. Willis: “The last two lines of verse 7 affirm that man’s life is God Given. God enables man to breathe, and thus to be alive, as he does all other creatures (see Gen. 7:22). Some have tried to justify a threefold division of man into flesh (or body), soul, and spirit from Genesis 2:7. They equate dust with flesh or body, breath with spirit, and insist that the last phrase of the verse must be translated as ‘a living soul.’ However, this understanding reads much more into the biblical text than it really says. (1) The Hebrew words for ‘flesh’ or ‘body’ and ‘spirit’ do not occur in this passage. (2) The Hebrew expression nephesh chayyah, which some insist on translating ‘a living soul,’ is used of fish and marine life in Genesis 1:20, 21; land animals in 1:24; beasts, birds, and reptiles in 1:30; and beasts and birds in 2:19. If ‘soul’ means the eternal part of man or the sum total of man’s ‘body’ and ‘spirit’ in Genesis 2:7, it must mean the eternal part of a fish or the sum total of a fish’s ‘body’ and ‘spirit’ in Genesis 1:20, 21; etc. (3) The flow of the context in Genesis 2:7 indicates that the word translated being in the RSV (nephesh) means the whole person. The author’s emphasis is on the gift of life.” The Living Word Commentary, “Genesis,” page 103-104, 1979, Sweet Publishing Company.
Adam Clarke: "Nephesh clayyah; a general term to express all creatures endued with animal life, in any of its infinitely varied gradations, from the half reasoning elephant down to the stupid potto, or lower still, to the polype, which seems equally to share the vegetable and animal life."
(2) MAN AND ANIMALS HAD THE BREATH OF LIFE (NESHAMAH) BREATHED INTO THEM.
Š “Breathed into his nostrils the breath of life (nshahmah)” man (Genesis 2:7).
Š “All in whose nostrils was the breath of life (nshahmah)” both man and animals have the same “breath of life (nshahmah)” (Genesis 7:22).
Š “Saved alive nothing that breaths (nshahmah-breath of life)” both men and animals (Deuteronomy 20:16). “Breath of life” and “breaths” are the same in the Hebrew, both are translated from “nshahmah,” but who knows why the translators choose to make them different in the English Bible.
Š “Utterly destroyed all that breaths (nshahmah-breath of life)” both men and animals (Joshua 10:40).
Š “There was not any left to breaths (nshahmah-breath of life)” both men and animals (Joshua 11:11).
Š “Neither left they any to breaths (nshahmah-breath of life)” both men and animals (Joshua 11:14).
o Does an immortal immaterial deathless soul or spirit breathe, or die when breathing stops?
Š “And the breath (nehphesh) of the Almighty gives me life” (Job 33:4).
Š “And breathed into his nostrils the breath (nehphesh) of life” (Genesis 2:7).
§ It is the breath (nehphesh) that God puts into the body that gives the body life, nehphesh is not an immortal deathless soul that has a life of it’s own.
Question: What effect did the “breath of life” in the nostrils of animals have on them? Most all would answer that it made them a living being, not an immortal deathless soul that will live after the death of the animals. Then what effect did the same “breath of life” have on mankind? It made them a living being just as it did animals, not an immortal deathless something that animals do not have.
THE BREATH OF LIFE: Some have switched from the soul being the immortal part of a person to the spirit being the immortal part of a person that animals do not have. “Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathe into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.” The phrase “breath of life” that was breathed into man in Genesis 2:7 is the same Hebrew “breath of life” in Genesis 7:21-22 that is in the nostrils of birds, cattle, men and beasts; the “breath of life” in animals it is the same “breath of life” that is in persons. The “breath of life” (1) is not a immortal spirit, (2) is not a immortal soul that men now have but animals do not have; it does not say that the “breath of life” God breathed into Adam was an immortal deathless spirit or soul, and his immortality was passed on to all mankind; the breathless body that God made from the earth is what became a living breathing being when the “breath of life” was breathed into the breathless body. God did not tell Adam he had a body that was made from the earth, but the real Adam was made of something not from the earth.
(3) MAN AND ANIMALS BECAME “A LIVING BEING.” The body of dust + the breath of life = a living being-soul (a living being-nehphesh), Genesis 2:7. Although this passage is repeatedly used to prove that an immortal, deathless soul that was put in a person that was not put in animals, most translations, other than the King James, apply it to the living breathing being or person, not to an invisible, deathless, immaterial something that was put in a person. Adam being spoken of as a "living being" (nehphesh Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”) proves he was mortal, not immortal, just as all "living beings" (nehphesh) fish, birds, animals, are mortal, not immortal. How can this be one of the most used proof texts used to prove Adam was made with an immortal soul? If it proves Adam had an immortal soul, then it proves that fish have an immortal soul that cannot die.
It is importance to understand that it is being said that both animals and mankind are a soul (are living beings), not that animals or mankind have a soul, have a part, an immortal, invisible, no substitute something in them that cannot die; there is a world of different in being a soul and an immortal soul being in you. Many assume, with much help from the translators and theology that Genesis is saying only mankind has souls, but animals do not. Because of what most have been taught, without realizing it they read into this that only mankind has a soul that is an immortal, invisible, no substitutes something that cannot die. This causes them to believe that only this immortal part of them self will be saved (more on this at the end of this chapter).
(6) Genesis 2:19 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals), "Every beast...every bird...whatsoever the man called every living creature (nehpheshs-mortal beings), that was the name thereof"
(7) Genesis 9:4 "life" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals)
(8) Genesis 9:5 "lives" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to man)
(9) Genesis 9:5 "life" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to man)
(10) Genesis 9:10 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals)
(11) Genesis 9:12 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals)
(12) Genesis 9:15 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to man and animals)
(13) Genesis 9:16 "living creature" (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to man and animals)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
A bird’s eye view of the translation of nehphesh in the first nine chapters.
1. “Moving creature that has life" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:20 – animals
2. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:21– animals
3. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:24 – animals
4. “Wherein there is life" (nehphesh) Genesis 1:30 – animals
5. “A living soul" (nehphesh) Genesis 2:7 – man
6. “A living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 2:19 – animals
7. “Life" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:4 – animals
8. “Lives” (nehphesh) Genesis 9:5 – man
9. “Life" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:5 – man
10. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:10 – animals
11. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:12 – animals
12. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:15 – man and animals
13. “Living creature" (nehphesh) Genesis 9:16 – man and animals
This is an example of men attempting to cover up the truth when it is contradictory to their theology. It takes a lot of preconceived theology to make nehphesh be an immaterial invisible no substance part of a man that is now immortal that is not in animals when it is not deliberately hid as it is in the King James Version.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
In Genesis 9:4-16 the same word is used for both man and animals seven times in the same passage.
To animals five times, to man four times.
Š Three times to animals alone, translated (1) life, (2) creature, (3) creature
Š Two times to animals and man together, translated (1) creature, (2) creature
Š Two times to man alone, translated (1) lives, (2) life
"But flesh with the LIFE (#1. Nehphesh, used referring to animals) thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall you not eat. And surely your blood, the blood of your LIVES (#2. nehphesh, used referring to man), will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it: and at the hand of men, even at the hand of every man's brother, will I require the LIFE (#3. nehphesh, used referring to man) of man. Whoso sheds man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed, for in the image of God made He men. And you, be you fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein. And God spoke unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, and I, behold, I establish my covenant with you and with your seed after you; and every LIVING CREATURE (#4. nehphesh, used referring to animals) that is with you, of the fowl, and the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you; from all that go out of the ark, to every beast of the earth. And I will establish my covenant with you; neither shall the waters of a flood cut off all flesh be any more; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth. And God said, This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every LIVING CREATURE (#5. nehphesh, used referring to animals) that is with you, for perpetual generation: I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be a token of a covenant between me and the earth. And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud: and I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every LIVING CREATURE (#6. nehphesh, used referring to man and animals) of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every LIVING CREATURE (#7. nehphesh, used referring to man and animals) of all flesh that is upon the earth."
All four times that soul (nehphesh) is used in Genesis 1; it is referring to animals, not to a person. IN TEN OF THE FIRST THIRTEEN TIMES SOUL (NEHPHESH) IS USED IT IS USED REFERRING TO ANIMALS, but the King James Version hides this by using different words, and most who read the King James Version never know it. Nehphesh is translated "soul" only one time of the first thirteen times it is used in the King James Version, but it is not translated "soul" in any of the first thirteen times it is used in the New King James Version, New American Standard Version, New Revised Standard Version, or New International Version. Mankind is the same soul (life–nehphesh) as the other "living creatures." He does not differ from other living creatures (soul–nehphesh) by having a soul (nehphesh) that cannot die. His dominion over other living creatures (other nehpheshs–souls) is not his nehphesh.
In the first nine chapters of Genesis soul (nehphesh—Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature”) is used more often with reference to animals than it is with reference to persons; it is the animal life, which both a person and animals have in common. How did the translators know when it changed to an invisible immortal part of a person, which animals do not have?
Note: both man and animals are souls, living beings. We are a soul, not have a soul. If we have a soul, have a living being in us, then we are one living being with another living being living in us. According to the doctrine that we have a soul living in us, a living being living in another living being, and it is only this immortal deathless being that is us that will be saved or tormented forever is the foundation of many of the errors that have divided the churches. That we are a soul (we are a living being), not we have a soul (not have a living being living in us) is one of the most fundamental and most misunderstood teaching in the Bible.
(14) Genesis 12:5 "And the people (nehphesh—"living beings") whom they had acquired" New King James Version ("soul" in King James Version.) Why were this translated people and not souls? They did not believe souls could be bought but people could be bought.
(15) Genesis 12:13 "That I (nehphesh—a "living being") may live because of you" New King James Version ("soul" in King James Version.) Do you wonder why this was translated, “That I may live” and not “That my soul may live?”
(16) Genesis 14:21 "Give me the persons (nehphesh—"living beings") and take the goods" King James Version. Can anyone give immortal souls to another person? Is there anyone that cannot see why nehphesh could not be translated “soul” in this passage?
(17) Genesis 17:14 "That person (nehphesh—a "living being") shall be cut off" New King James Version.
(18) Genesis 19:17 “Escape for your life” (nehphesh—a "living being") King James Version.
(19) Genesis 19:19 “Saving my life” (nehphesh—a "living being") King James Version.
In the first nineteen times nehphesh is used it is translated “soul.”
§ Only three times in the King James Version
§ None in the New King James Version
§ None in the New American Standard Version
§ None in the New Revised Standard Version
§ None in the New International Version
(20) Genesis 19:20 "That my life (nehphesh—a "living being") may be saved" New American Standard Version (Translated soul for the fourth time in the King James Version, but only for the first time in the New King James Version). Do you wonder how did the translators of the New King James Version did not think this word means “soul” in the nineteen times it was used before this, but changed their minds this time?
(21) Genesis 23:8 “If it be your mind” (nehphesh—a "living being") King James Version.
(22) Genesis 27:4 "So that I (nehphesh—a "living being") may bless you before I die" New Revised Standard Version.
Up to Genesis 27:4 for hundreds of years nehphesh is translated soul
Š Only four times out of twenty-two in the King James Version.
Š Only one time out of twenty-two in the New King James Version.
Š None in The New International Version and most others translations.
Nehphesh has been used 21 times before the New King James Version translated it "soul" for the first time, but even then the translators of many versions have chosen not to translate it "soul." In Genesis "nehphesh" is not an immortal "immaterial, invisible part of man," but it is the life, living creature, living being, any living thing, whether animals, fish, or man, all mortal beings are a nehphesh. If the translators had continued to translate nehphesh as life, living creature, living being, or person, as they did in the first twenty-one times it is used, there may not be the divisions there are today. Why did they not translate nehphesh into soul in the first part of the Bible that covers hundreds of years? Maybe because they thought it would have made animals have souls, and they did not believe animals could have souls. I find it difficult to see how anyone could not call their honesty into question for it is undeniable that they put their belief over the word of God, and they deliberately hid the truth from their readers; they deliberately hid the truth from you.
(23) Genesis 32:30 "My life (nehphesh--"living beings") is preserved" King James Version. Most translations use "life" in this passage for an immortal soul could not perish and would not need to be preserved.
(24) Genesis 34:3
(25) Genesis 34:8
(26) Genesis 35:18
(27) Genesis 36:6 "All the persons (nehpheshs-mortal beings) of his house" King James Version.
(28) Genesis 37:21 "Let us not kill him (nehpheshs-mortal beings)" King James Version. It was observe to the translators that they could not translate this nehphesh into soul, after all an immortal soul could not be killed.
(29) Job 12:10 "In whose hand is the soul (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals) of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind." "The life of every living thing" New American Standard Bible.
(30) Job 41:21 “His breath” (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to an animal, possibly a crocodile).
(31) Isaiah 19:10 "All that make sluices and ponds for fish (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to animals, fish)" King James Version. Although nehphesh is in the Hebrew, many translations seems not to know what to do with it, and just took it out, or completely changed it for they did not want a soul to be in a pond.
(32) Jeremiah 2:24 "A wild ass used to the wilderness, that snuffed up the wind in her (nehpheshs-mortal beings, used referring to an animal) desire."
(33) Proverbs 27:7 “The full soul (nehpheshs-mortal being) loathes an honeycomb; but to the hungry soul (nehpheshs-mortal being)" ever bitter thing is sweet.” How could the translators think an immaterial something could be full or could be hungry for honey?
Š “A sated man (nehphesh) loathes honey, but to a famished man (nehphesh) any bitter thing is sweet” New American Standard Bible.
Š “He (nehphesh) who is full loathes honey, but to the hungry even what is bitter tastes sweet” New International Version. “Nehphesh” is in the Hebrew two times, but one of the two it was left out in the New International Version.
(34) Numbers 31:28 "And levy a tribute unto the Lord of the men of war which went out to battle: one soul (nehpheshs-mortal beings–used referring to man and animals) of five hundred, both of the persons, and of the beeves, and of the asses and of the sheep." Of about 870 times “nephesh” is in the Old Testament this and Job 12:10 are the only passages where the King James translators translated “nephesh” as “soul” when it has reference to animals, and is maybe that the only reason they did this time is that it has equal reference to people as it does to animals and they had no choice.
"So carefully has the translation of nehphesh been guarded in relation to animals as 'souls,' that we can't help but wonder if it were not done intentionally to conceal the fact that animals are souls as well as men." David J. Heinizman, "Man Became A Living Soul."
(35 to 870) It would be to long to quote all the 870 times the Hebrew word nehphesh is in the Old Testament with just over one-half being translated "soul," about 473 times in King James Version. Not once do any of them imply anything about life beyond the grave or about the soul being immortal. Nehphesh in the New International Version Old Testament is translated soul only 72 times out of the 870 times it is used, according to the this translation, 798 times nehphesh was not a “soul.”
A nehphesh could be:
Š Saved (Genesis 19:19; 1 Samuel 19:11; 2 Samuel 19:5)
Š Killed (Numbers 35:11; 35:15; 35:30)
Š Ransomed (Exodus 21:30)
Š Destroyed (Leviticus 23:30; Joshua 11:11)
Š Delivered (Joshua 2:13)
Š Sought to be killed (Judges 18:25)
Š Taken (Deuteronomy 19:21)
Š Forfeited (Joshua 2:14)
Š Risked (Judges 12:3; 1 Samuel 28:21)
Š Lost (Judges 1:25)
Š Jeopardized (Judges 5:18; 1 Samuel 19:50
All 870 times have one thing in common, they are all associated with the activity of a living being including dying, and nehphesh never implies anything about life after the death of the living being, all the 870 are all speaking of living beings that will die, not of an immortal deathless something that is in a living being that is not deathless. None of the 870 times are an immortal inter part of a person; they are a mortal living being that can die, be killed, or be dead, (whether the living being is a person, animal or fish). Nehphesh is always associated with the activity of earthly breathing beings, both of person(s) and animal(s). It never implies anything about life beyond the grave. IT IS NEVER TRANSLATED "SPIRIT"
Although nehphesh—Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature” is translated into about thirty-five words, thirty-four all have reference to a mortal being, animal, or person that is not deathless, none to an “immaterial invisible part of a person” that is deathless.
1. How could nehphesh be a mortal breathing creature that will die in thirty-four of the words into which it is translated?
2. And it is an immortal something that does not breath and that will not die in only one of the thirty-five words. Is it because this is the only word that they could use to put the Pagan immortal soul into the Bible, but were not able to translate it into an immortal invisible deathless something most of the times it was used?
Can one word be rightly translated this way? How could the translators know when to translate this word as a mortal being that will die, and when the same word was to be changed to an immortal being that cannot die? No one reading some of the English translations of the Bible would have any way of knowing that all these words are translations (or mistranslations) of only one word. Did the translators do so because they wanted to make a person be an "immortal being," and more than a "living creatures?" In almost one half of the times nehphesh is used in the Old Testament, even the King James translators could not translate it "soul." When the all-knowing God used just one word, why did the translators use many words and change it as they wished to from a noun to pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc.? Did they think that for all the years from Adam unto Christ? God people could understand the one word God used, but now about forty words are needed to translate that one word? If one word were all that was needed from Adam unto the translation of the King James Version, why would God's one word not be enough today? Do the translators think they have improved the Hebrew Old Testament by changing the one word that God used into about thirty-five words, and changing this noun into about all parts of speech? The use of many words came when the Catholic Church brought in unconditional immortality, and they had to get it into the Bible. The Hebrew manuscripts still have just one word–nehphesh, which was the one word God inspired. Were the translators inspired to change it to many words? And changed from one part of speech into many parts of speech?
Nehphesh is translated soul far fewer times in the New American Standard Version, and in most other translations, including the New King James Version, than it is in the King James Version. Were they going as far as they dared to in correcting the King James Version?
The way soul is understood and used today in English (an inter undying part of a person) makes putting the word soul in a translation for the English people today be a false and deliberately misleading translation, for it makes it where today's English reader cannot know what God said, and will understand only what the prejudiced outlook the translators wanted their readers to understand when they know that most that read it would understand the word soul only as it is used today. Without much study of Bible words, which most Bible reader will never do, they cannot know what God said to them when they read the word soul, and they will think that the somewhat prejudice outlook of the translator is the word of God. God's word has been deliberately replaced with the teaching of man (Matthew 15:9) in a way that will have more influence on our conception of what our nature is and the nature of all living beings than any other question.
THE “SOUL” AND “EATING OF BLOOD”
Is the immortal "soul" (nehphesh) in the blood? Is a part of a person that many say it lives after the death of the body in the blood of both men and animals? (Leviticus 17:10-15) In only six verses nehphesh is used ten times but the translators concealed this from their reads by translating nehphesh as both life and soul, always life the four times it was speaking of animals, and soul the six times it was speaking of a person; does this not show their reluctance to let us see what God said to us?
The same word (nehphesh) is translated soul six times and life four times in the King James Version in Leviticus 17:10-15.
Š Used referring to animals four times—nehphesh translated (1) life, (2) life, (3) life, (4) life.
Š Used referring to man six times—nehphesh translated (1) soul, (2) soul, (3) soul, (4) soul, (5) soul, (6) soul.
Leviticus 17:10-15 in New Revised Standard Version
Š Used referring to animals four times—nehphesh translated (1) life, (2) life, (3) life, (4) life.
Š Used referring to man six times—nehphesh translated (1) person, (2) person, (3) lives, (4) life, (5) person, (6) persons.
Leviticus 17:10-15 in New International Version
Š Used referring to animals four times—nehphesh translated (1) life, (2) life, (3) life, (4) life.
Š Used referring to man six times—nehphesh translated (1) person, (2) person, (3) lives, (4) person, (5) life, (6) anyone.
Leviticus 17:10-15 King James Version, "I will even set my face against that SOUL (person–nehphesh, used referring to man) that eats blood, and will cut him off from among his people. For the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your SOULS: (nehphesh, used referring to man) for it is the blood that makes an atonement for the SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man). Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, no SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) of you shall eat blood...For it is the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of all flesh; the blood of it is for the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel, no SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the LIFE (soul-nehphesh, used referring to animals) of all flesh is the blood thereof: whosoever eats it shall be cut off. And every SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) that eats that which died of itself...he shall wash his clothes, and bath himself in water" In this passage, the King James Version translated the same word "soul" all six times when it used referring to man, and "life" all four times when it used referring to animals. Can anyone not see how the translators picked when they wanted "nehphesh" to be "soul," and when they wanted "nehphesh" to be "life"? They could not let an immortal soul be in the blood, nor could they let animals have an immortal soul. Their theology said a man had to have a soul, but an animal could not, and they were not willing that their reader see that the word "nehphesh" is used referring to both, and that both do not have a soul but are a soul.
The vanishing use of soul in Leviticus 17:10-15.
Leviticus 17:10-15 New Revised Standard Version, "If anyone of the house of Israel or of the aliens who reside among them eats any blood, I will set my face against that PERSON (nehphesh) who eats blood, and will cut that PERSON (nehphesh) off from the people. For the LIFE (nehphesh) of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you for making atonement for your LIVES (nehphesh) on the altar, for, as LIFE, (nehphesh) it is the blood that makes atonement. Therefore I have said to the people of Israel: No PERSON (nehphesh) among you shall eat blood...For the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature-its blood is its LIFE; (nehphesh) therefore I have said to the people of Israel: You shall not eat the blood of any creature, for the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature is its blood; whoever eats it shall be cut off. All PERSONS, (nehphesh) citizens or aliens, who eat what dies of itself...shall wash their clothes, and bathe themselves in water"
Leviticus 17:10-15 New International Version, "Any Israelite or any alien living among them who eats any blood-I will set my face against that PERSON (nehphesh) who eats blood and will cut HIM (nehphesh) off from his people. For the LIFE (nehphesh) of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for YOURSELVES (nehphesh) on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonements for one's LIFE (nehphesh). Therefore I say to the Israelites, 'None of YOU (nehphesh) may eat blood, nor may an alien living among you eat blood'...because the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature is its blood. That is why I have said to the Israelites, You must not eat the blood of any creature, because the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature is its blood; anyone who eats it must be cut off. ANYONE (nehphesh), whether native-born or alien, who eats anything found dead or torn by wild animals must wash his clothes and bathe with water'."
Š "No soul (nehphesh) shall eat blood" Leviticus 17:12. No person–an immortal soul eating blood?
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THE DYING USE OF "SOUL"
IN THE OLD TESTAMENT: In translations that were made by those who believe a person has an immortal soul, why is the use of the word "soul" becoming used less? Nehphesh is used in the Old Testament 870 times.
TRANSLATED SOUL ONLY
IN THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Greek work translated soul (psukee) is used 106 times.
TRANSLATED SOUL ONLY
IN BOTH THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT: The Hebrew word translated soul (nehphesh) is used over 870 times in the Old Treatment, and the Greek word translated soul (psukee) is used 106 times, both together about 976 times.
TRANSLATED SOUL ONLY
Most, if not all these translators believe in an immortal soul, but have been reducing the times these words are translated "soul" and replacing it with "life," "person," "heart," or changed it to pronouns that are related to a person. The way soul has been mostly removed in most translations, and replaced with life or person, the translators are saying the English word soul is not a true translation of the Hebrew.
WHY THE USE OF SOUL IS DYING
In many passages the psukee does thing that only this earthly body can do, things that an immortal soul that has no substance could not do. “And He told them a parable, saying, "The land of a rich man was very productive. And he began reasoning to himself, saying, 'What shall I do, since I have no place to store my crops?' Then he said, 'This is what I will do: I will tear down my barns and build larger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. And I will say to my soul (psukee), Soul (psukee), you have many goods laid up for many years to come; take your ease, eat, drink and be merry.’ But God said to him, ‘You fool! This very night your soul (psukee) is required of you'" Luke 12:19-21.
The New International Version removed “soul.” “And I'll say to myself (Greek psukee–life), ‘you (Greek psukee–life) have plenty of good things laid up for many years. Take life easy; eat drink and be merry.’ But, God said to him, ‘You fool! This very night your life (Greek–psukee) will be demanded from you.’”
It is obvious that an immaterial, invisible, no substance soul would have no use for the things the rich man stored in his barns, it would not be able to eat and drink the thing stored in barns, that this was not speaking of an immaterial soul with without any substance, but was speaking of an earthly person that can eat and drink of the substance was stored and would be able to use the things stored, and it was life that would be required of the earthly person, not life from an immortal soul that could not die; when a persons life was required who would use the things he had stored? Translators put Plato’s “immortal soul” into the Bible by mistranslating, but many transitions are taking much of their mistranslating out.
The Hebrew noun, nehphesh has been changed to many different pronouns, but all the pronouns have a reference to an earthly being, not to a no substance inter part of a person. Most of the 473 times nehphesh was translated soul in the King James Version it has been translated life or person, or changed to many different pronouns in many translations. Nehphesh did not mean an immaterial invisible something in a person in the Old Testament; how could the translators think it was right to change one noun into many pronouns?
The Hebrew people in the Old Testament that were reading their Scriptures would have had no way to make a distinction in the life (soul–nehphesh) of animals or men. Even today in the Hebrew Old Testament there is no distinction between a person and or an animal being a soul–a living creature, but translators have changed this. Only in the English translations is there a distinction, and this distinction is because man has changed God's word. God used the same word to describe both persons and animals. If this one word proves one is now immortal, it proves both are. Man says animals do not have a soul but people do. God says both people and animals are a soul.
Summary: About one third of the words translated soul, nehphesh in the Old Testament, and psukee in the New Testament are associated with the destruction and death of the soul (life, nehphesh). This is an insoluble problem for those that believe today's theology, which says the soul cannot die.
Since the word “soul” has a meaning in English that in not in the Hebrew word “nehphesh” or the Greek word “psuche” the question is, “Is soul a true translation,” or was it the translators putting their Platonic and Hellenized philosophy into the Bible? The doctrine of an immortal soul did not exist when the Old Testament was written and nehphesh would not be understood to be a “soul” not unto the Geek doctrine was brought into the church by the so called “church fathers,” and by the dark age Catholic Church. The translators of the King James Version still believed this doctrine and changed the word of God in this and many places, but think goodness most translations have now partly corrected this change.
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPEDIA: "Not, however, to dwell on the fact that many peoples have no clear conception of an immaterial 'soul' in the modern sense (the Egyptians, e. g. distinguished several parts, the Ka, the Ba, etc., which survived death; often the surviving self is simply a ghostly resemblance of the earthly self, nourished with food, offerings, etc.), there is the more serious consideration that the state into which the surviving part is supposed to enter as death is anything but a state which can be described as 'life,' or worthy to be dignified with the name 'immortality.' It is a state peculiar to 'death;' in most cases, shadowy, inert, feeble, dependent, joyless; a state to be dreaded and shrunk from, not one to be hoped for. If, on the other hand, as in the hope of immortality among the nobler heathen, it is conceived of, as for some, a state of happiness-the clog of the body being shaken off-this yields the idea, which has passed into so much of our modern thinking, of an 'immortality of the soul,' of an imperishableness of the spiritual part, sometimes supposed to extend backward as well as forward; an inherent indestructibility." From the article "Immortal; Immortality." Also from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, "We are influenced always more or less by the Greek, Platonic idea that the body dies, yet the soul is immortal. Such an idea is utterly contrary to the Israelite consciousness and is nowhere found in the Old Testament" From the article "Death," page 812. Also from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, "Soul, like spirit, has various shades of meaning in the O.T., which may be summarized as follows: 'Soul,' 'living being,' 'life,' 'self,' 'person,' 'desire,' 'appetite,' 'emotion' and 'passion'...NEHPHESH OR SOUL, CAN ONLY DENOTE THE INDIVIDUAL LIFE WITH A MATERIAL ORGANIZATION OR BODY." page 2837. "For the Hebrews a person was a unity, not to be divided into body, soul, and spirit as the Greeks did," page 592.
JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA: "The belief that the soul continues its existence after the dissolution of the body is a matter of philosophical or theological speculation rather than of simple faith, AND IS ACCORDINGLY, NOWHERE TAUGHT IN THE HOLY SCRIPTURE...The belief in the immortality of the soul came to the Jews from contact with Greek thought and chiefly through the philosophy of Plato, its principal exponent, who was led to it through Orphic and Dleusinian mysteries in which Babylonian and Egyptian views were strangely blended," "Immortality of the Soul," 1925. The concept of punishment after death is not in the Old Testament. The Law given through Moses deals only with punishment in this life and has no provisions for punishment after death. From their contact with pagan philosophy, the pagan immortal soul teaching had made some inroads with some Jews by the time of Christ. Paul warned about this Philosophy (Colossians 2:8).
C. R. GRESHAM: Commenting on 1 Corinthians 15:51-52 said, "Paul is pointing out that the resurrection truth which he is revealing was partially, if not wholly, hidden to past generations. We must take this seriously and not read New Testament revelation back into the Old Testament accounts…It is generally conceived that there is little about resurrection or after-life in what the Jews called the Torah...and the Former Prophets...Death is seen as the end, the destruction of human existence," page 25. "Man's soul is primarily his vitality, his life, not some separate part of a person that has independent existence and an immortal nature, God's spirit (His breath, His power) creates and sustains all living things (Ps 33:6; 104:29-30), even the human spirit (Zech 12:1), but never is man's soul or spirit seen as an immortal part of man surviving death," page 40. "The widespread misunderstanding that the New Testament teaches the immortality of the soul...If one recognizes that death and eternal life in the New Testament are always bound up the Christ-event, then it becomes clear that for the first Christians the soul is not intrinsically immortal, but rather became so only through the resurrection of Jesus Christ," page 275. "What The Bible Says About Resurrection" The College Press, 1983, (Christian Church).
INTERPRETER’S DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE: “No biblical text authorizes the statement that the soul is separated from the body at the moment of death” Volume one, Article “Death,” page 802, 1960. “The word ‘soul’ in English…coming from philosophical Greek (Platonism)…In the OT it never means the immortal soul, but it is essentially the life principle, or the living being, or the self as the subject of appetite, and emotion.” Volume 4, Article “Soul,” 1960.
The belief of Socrates and Plato was that when the soul is freed from the person it was in that it would live forever in a better place without the person that it had been in. This Greek philosophy was what most of the church fathers had been taught and believed, the background from which they came. Tertullian, one of the first of the church fathers to teach this philosophy was truthful about from where he had learned it. He said, "For some things are known even by nature: the immortality of the soul, for instance, is held by many...I may use, therefore, the opinion of a Plato, when he declares, 'Every soul is immortal'" Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 3, page 1916. By the time of the translation of the King James Version this heathen doctrine was believed by the Roman Catholic Church and most Protestants, but had been changed from believing that all souls are freed and go on to a much better place to a few souls go to a better place, but most souls, after being freed from the person it was in by the death of the person, will go to eternal torment in Hell; the “Hell” part had to be added to what was believed by Plato, or the Catholic Church with it’s priest would not have been needed, after the death of the persons the souls was trapped in all souls would have gone to the same better place without there help.
The Hebrew word “nehphesh” and the Greek word “psuche” were the only words the translators could use to put the immortal soul they believed in into the Bible; but they found only 530 times out of 976 times these two words were used that was suitable to use to add this philosophy. Later translations have been little by little removing it.
Neither “nehphesh” nor “psuche” are used with the qualifying words immoral, undying, endless, or everlasting, but in today’s preaching these words are continually added to “soul.”
The Egyptians might have been the first to believe in the dual nature of a person. They believed that death was a door to a new form of life, which may be higher or lower, depending on how good or bad a person was. They believed the body was evil and a prison to the soul. They built the pyramids and other tombs and put the things in them they thought would be needed in the next life. Death was a friend to them that freed the soul of the evil body; but it was the Greeks (Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato) who adopted this Egyptian belief of the dual nature of a person and developed the philosophy of the immortal soul. Many church fathers were schooled in and believed in this Greek philosophy, and were only partly converted. They, after greatly expanding on the teaching of Plato, brought the Greek philosophy into the church in the apostasy. Unconditional immortality is the foundation of the doctrine of Hell. If a person had an unseen immortal soul in them that would not die when they died, there had to be a place to put the "souls" which were evil but could not die. The "souls" that were in the saved had to be put somewhere; therefore, the doctrine of a soul going to Heaven or Hell immediately after the person died without a resurrection or a judgment came into being, and the New Testament teaching of the resurrection of the dead became unneeded and of little or no importance.
In the Greek philosophy a soul never dies; only the body dies, freeing the soul to a higher life. Christ taught the resurrection of man, not the Greek "immaterial, invisible part of man" (W. E. Vine) that never dies. The Greeks did not believe in or need a resurrection, or a savior, or redeemer; these would not fit into their belief. They believed in an immortal soul; therefore, there could be no death. The Greek philosophy of an immortal soul was opposed and opposite to the teaching of Christ on the resurrection. The immortal soul doctrine was believed by most pagan religions in the time of Paul, and when he was before Agrippa, he asked, "Why is it considered incredible among you people if God does raise the dead?" (Acts 26:8 New American Standard Version). To Plato and Agrippa, the resurrection of the dead would have been a step backward. It would put the soul that was freed from its prison of a body back into the prison it had been freed from.
Š The Greek and heathen belief that the immortal soul is indestructible, demands that the soul cannot die, but must be alive forever somewhere.
Š The resurrection as taught by Christ demands that a person be dead, if not, there cannot be a resurrection.
The resurrection is a calling back to life the whole person God created, not a calling back to life, as Plato taught, a deathless something that is difference than the whole person that it had been in, an immaterial living soul that had been in a dead person when the person was alive, but has gone on to wherever it is believed souls go after it leave the person it was once in. If the Greek doctrine of an immortal soul that cannot die, which is believed by many today were true, then the resurrection of Christ and our resurrection would be pointless even if it were possible to raise from the dead a soul that is not dead.
PLATO and SOCRATES -- versus -- CHRIST
Immortality --------- versus - A resurrection to life
Death a friend ------ versus - Death is "the last enemy"
Plato: The soul is | If there is no resurrection
Immortal, therefore only | death is the end of
"It" is alive after death| all life 1 Corinthians 15:14-23
Plato: Only the body dies| "Then they also that are
Freeing soul to a higher | fallen asleep in Christ
Life without a body | have perished"
Only some inter part of | A person (who in Christ) will be
A person is immortal | immortal, not just part of a person
All the dead are alive | Christ is "the first born from the dead"
Plato's immortal soul and Christ's resurrection are not compatible, both cannot be. One can be true, but not both; they are alien and complete opposite to each other. THE IMMORTAL SOUL DOCTRINE OF PLATO IS A TOTAL REJECTION OF THE TEACHING OF CHRIST ON THE RESURRECTION OF A PERSON TO LIFE. TO BELIEVE PLATO IS TO REJECT CHRIST.
Š Plato argued for an immortal, immaterial soul that was better off after the death of the person it was in.
Š Paul taught the resurrection of the dead person.
o THE TWO ARE COMPLETED INCOMPATIBLE; IT IS DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND WHY MANY THAT SAY THEY BELIEVE THE BIBLE CHOOSE PLATO’S PAGAN PHILOSOPHY OVER THE BIBLE.
Paul and Plato used the same Greek words, but not in the same way. Immortal, immortality, indestructible, never dying was used by Plato, and are used by many today to describe the soul that lives after the death of the person it once was in, but in the Old or New Testament these words are never used referring to any lost person, or to any part of a person after the person is dead. The expression "immortal soul" is very common in the writing of the pagan philosophers and today's preachers, but is not found in the Bible.
PAUL USED |PLATO AND MANY TODAY SAY THE SOUL
Die |cannot die
Death |no death
Destroyed |cannot be destroyed
Corruption |is incorruptible
Mortal |is immortal
Perish |cannot perish
HENRY CONSTABLE: "In the very terms in which the punishment of the wicked is asserted in the New Testament. Where the latter says the soul shall die, Plato says it shall not die; where the latter says it shall be destroyed, Plato says it shall not be destroyed; where the latter says it shall perish and suffer corruption, Plato says it shall not perish and is incorruptible. The phrases are the very same, only that what Plato denies of all souls alike, the New Testament asserts of some of the souls of men. But the discussion of the question was not confined to the school of Plato or to his times. Every school of philosophy took it up, whether to confirm Plato's view, or to deny it, or to heap ridicule upon it. All the phrases we have been discussing from the New Testament had been explained, turned over and over, handled with all the power of the masters of language, presented in every phase, so that of their sense there could be no doubt, nor could there be any one ignorant of their sense before Jesus spoke, or an Evangelist or Apostle wrote. The subject had not died out before the days of Christ. It never could and never will die out. In every city of the Roman world were schools of Grecian taught in the days of the Apostles. In every school the question before us was discussed in the phrases and language of the New Testament" "Duration and Nature of Future Punishment," 1871.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: "Plato established the basic Western tradition on this topic by defining the soul as the spiritual part of the human that survived death" 1991.
Some believe that in the afterlife we will be nothing more than a collection of disembodied spirits or souls that will be just as alive and just the same from the day of birth of the birth of the persons they were in as these souls will ever be. Death and the resurrection are out of step with the belief of Plato.
That there is something in a person and that something being deathless is a philosophy of man that Paul warned about (Colossians 2:8). An immortal soul was copied from heathen philosophy and superstition. Those who believe we now have "an immortal soul" get their belief from Greek philosophy, but are inconstant and self-contradicting; they say the soul cannot die, but it needs a Savior anyway. If we were born with an immortal soul, it would have no need for Christ to save it from the death it cannot die. Christianity did not destroy the pagan doctrine of Egypt and Greece; by the Dark Age it had adopted it.
Death is the enemy (1 Corinthians 15:26). It is the destruction of the life given by God. It is not the liberator of an immortal soul, as Plato believed it to be. It is death, which must be conquered by the resurrection. When we understand that death is really death, not another kind of life for an immortal something that is in a person, something that has no substance, the resurrection is all-important. Without a resurrection we can do what we want for this life is all there is (1 Corinthians 15:32). Our only hope is the resurrection, and without it there will be no life of any kind for us after death. Plato's immortal, deathless soul needs no resurrection, IT CANNOT BE RESURRECTED. "Set your hope perfectly on the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ" (1 Peter 1:12). It is at the resurrection that we "shall receive the crown of glory that fades not away" (1 Peter 5:4).
Š The Bible speaks of “us,” “we,” and “you” that shall be with the Lord after the judgment day, the person will be resurrected, not a soul that once was in us, but it has gone on to be with the Lord without us.
The Bible teaching, "The wages of sin is death" leaves no lost souls alive after the judgment and second death to be put anywhere. The teaching of Christ, that life (everlasting life or immortality) will be given only to those who obey Him, makes Hell impossible. Unless Christ gives eternal life (immortality) to the lost, they cannot live forever anywhere. The Greek teaching of an immortal soul must be made to stand, and the teaching of Christ that He will give life only to those who come to Him must be removed, or there cannot be a Hell.
Socrates drinks hemlock and died with a smile on his face because he thought he was freeing his soul to leave his body and live with the gods, to live free of being in him. Christ "sweats as it was great drops of blood" (Luke 22:44). Death is the enemy of man. It destroys him, and only the resurrection frees us from death, and gives us back the life death takes. In death there is no life in Heaven or life in any other place for us before the resurrection. The resurrection is not just a coming back from Heaven to be judged and then going back to Heaven, it is our only hope of life after our death. Without the resurrection "then they also that are fallen asleep in Christ have perished" (1 Corinthians 15:18). The Greek philosophy that found its way into the Church says the souls that have left the persons they were in have not perished, but are freed to live with God in Heaven, that souls are alive without the need of a resurrection. As the results of the pagan immortal soul doctrine came Hellfire, Purgatory, worship of Mary and saints, etc. The Protestant Reformation was largely a reaction to medieval superstitious beliefs and Purgatory, an intermediate state of temporal punishment where souls that were not good enough to go to Heaven, and not bad enough to go to Hell; in the Church in the Dark Age, this was almost all the souls that had left the dead persons they were in. The priests would have the loved ones pay for souls to shorten the time the souls of the dead persons were in Purgatory. Selling indulgences and paying to reduce the time the deathless souls that had left the dead loved ones would spend in Purgatory was rejected by the Reformation, as was many other superstitious beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church; but the Greek dual nature of a person and the doctrine of Hell were retained. Calvin believed the soul did not sleep, but went to Heaven or Hell as soon as it left the person.
The Westminster Confession says, "The souls of the righteous...are received unto the highest heavens...the soul of the wicked are cast into Hell."
Unconditional immortality is the pagan transmigration of souls. Augustine and other partly converted "church fathers" that knew more of the teaching of Plato than they did of Christ and they rewrote reincarnation to fit Christianity. The doctrine of an immortal soul that is not dead replaced the resurrection, and made it both useless and impossible.
Transmigration of souls:
Ancient Egyptian belief was that the soul had a gloomy existence in the underworld (transmigration). The Greeks and Romans believed about the same with some changes. Oriental and Pythagorean philosophy, Buddhists, Hindus, and Grand Lama all believed in some form of reincarnation. All believed the "soul" of the evil had some punishment, but not all believed the soul had the same punishment. With most the punishment of the soul after it had left the person it had been in was only some kind of gloomy existence in the underworld that would end when it was reincarnated, not endless torment as it is taught today. With most, the more evil a person was the lower his soul would have the capability to reincarnate. Some would come back as a person, the more evil as a plant or insect. This punishment was believed to be under or down in the earth by most. Hell was and is still believed by some to be under the earth. This is the nearest thing to today's Hell in heathen philosophy, and in any writing unto after the New Testament. The "church fathers" borrowed from the heathens (mostly Greek and Romans), and invented unto by the time of the Dark Age they had invented Hell, Limbo, Purgatory, worship of Mary and saints, the Pope declared to be God in the flesh, and much more. God was made into a cruel and sadistic being. Those who worshiped him truly became like the god they invented. Millions who believed the world was round, or in any way did not believe all the Church taught, were put to death as heretics. It put some to death for having the Bible in their own language-not in Latin. It was one of the bloodiest times of history, and continued into the Protestant Reformation (The Crusades, bloody Mary, witch-hunts, and much more). Some of the cruelest ways of torment the world has ever known were invented and used, and all in the name of their god; after Calvin burned Servetus to death he wrote a book with a long title, “A Faithful Account Of The Errors Of Servetus, In Which It Is Proved That Heretics Ought To Be Restrained By The Sword.” It would take many books to tell of all the bloody deeds of the Dark Age by the so-called "church." The reasons for them are summed up in the words of bloody Mary. "As the souls of heretics are hereafter to be eternally burning in Hell, there can be nothing more proper than for me to imitate the divine vengeance by burning them on earth." In the Dark Age, the "church" was a mixture of Christianity, Judaism, Paganism, and their own inventions, but mostly the last two. Before the Protestant Reformation there was more heathen philosophy in the Dark Age Church than true Christian teaching. It had apostatized into a satanic cult.
Different characteristics of a person, not different parts of a person that can live without each other, but a person looked at from different points of view.
Ashley S. Johnson, founder and president of the Johnson Bible College: “Generally the world ‘soul’ in the ordinary version should be life,” “The Resurrection And The Future Life,” page 336, 1913, Knoxville Lithographing Company.
"MAN BECAME A LIVING BEING" Genesis 1:26 "Then God said, 'Let Us make MAN in Our image,'" not "Let Us make a soul in Our Image and put this soul in MAN unto the death of the MAN it is in." Genesis 2:7 "Then the Lord formed MAN of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; (not breathed into the body an immortal undying no substance soul, but breathed into “man” the breath of life, which both men and animals have), and MAN became a living being." Not a body + an immortal soul, but "a living being." Not two beings, a body being (a person) with an invisible soul being living in the person. How can the breath of life in your nose (breathing) be an immortal something that dose not breathe? The same “man” that was created “in the image of God” is the same “man” that was created “male and female.” It is “man” that was created “male and female,” man that is in the “image of God,” not only an immaterial something in “man” that is in the image of God.
The body of dust + the breath of life = a living soul (a living being-nehphesh), Genesis 2:7. The breath of life without the body would not be a person or animal. The breath of life without the body would not be an immortal living being, not a nehphesh. All living creatures, whether they are animals or sea-dwelling creatures are souls (nehpheshs–living beings).
God formed Man, not merely the body of man; it was man that was formed from the dust of the ground. Man is in the image of God; it is MAN, not an invisible something in man that has no substance that is in the image of God. After Adam was put out of the garden he was still in the image of God, mankind is still in the image of God. If Adam was created innate immortal, then what was the purpose of the tree of life? If Adam had an immortal soul that was created not subject to death, then the tree of life could have had no purpose; an immortal soul would live forever with or without it; if Adam had a deathless soul, his deathless soul would not have died if he did or did not eat of the tree of life; it was Adam that could and did die for eating of the tree, not a deathless soul that could not die, therefore; could not be what was to die for eating of the forbidden fruit.
Summary: The Bible says, “Man became a living soul” is changed to, “Man was given a soul,” or “Man had a soul put in him.” There is a world of difference in a person being a living soul and a person having a soul. Both man and animals are a living soul, neither one have a soul. If the breath of life in his nostrils in Genesis 2:7 makes a person have an immortal part (spirit) living in him or her that cannot die, then "all in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life" in Genesis 7:22 would also prove all beasts, birds, and fish have an immortal part (soul) living in them that cannot die.
GOD IS A LIVING BEING (Not God has a soul in Him)
1. “Moreover, I will make My dwelling among you, and My soul (nehphesh) will not reject you” (Leviticus 26:11).
2. “I then will destroy your high places, and cut down your incense altars, and heap your remains on the remains of your idols; for My soul (nehphesh) shall abhor you” (Leviticus 26:30).
Š I know of no one that believes God has “an invisible, no substance” something in Him that can exist apart from Him. His soul (nehphesh) is His person, His being—life, not an immortal soul living in the immortal God, just as the soul of a person or animal is the life (the living being) of the person or animal, not an immortal being in them.
ANIMALS ARE "SOULS" nehphesh– a living creature
Animals ARE souls–a living being, not animals HAVE souls–an immaterial, invisible, no substance, deathless something. In Genesis 1:20; 1:21; 1:24; 1:30, most translations try to hide this. WHY? Why is it translated "living creature" when used referring to animals, and the same word is changed and translated "soul" when used referring to a person? There is no excuse or defense for it; it is a deliberate attempt by the translators, who did not believe God's word as it is, to mislead there readers; all Bible teachers should point this out to all they teach (James 3:1). If "the living soul" (nehphesh) is the immortal part of a person, then bugs, all sea creatures, all birds, and all animals have an immortal soul. In Genesis "Living soul" is used more of these creatures than it is of man.
Passages in which soul (nehphesh) is speaking of animals being souls but is deliberately hid from the English readers that the word nehphesh—souls is used.
Many believe, "The living soul" in Genesis 2:7 is the one distinctive thing that makes a person different from an animal, but if this makes a person have an immortal soul in them, there is no way around all living things having immortal souls in them. In these passages bugs, birds, fish, persons, are all a nehphesh, a "living beings," not a deathless, immaterial something.
John T. Willis: "The last two lines of verse 7 affirm that a person's life is God-given. God enables a person to breathe, and thus, to be alive, as he does other creatures (see Genesis 7:22). Some have tried to justify a threefold division of man into flesh (or body), soul, and spirit from Genesis 2:7. They equate dust with flesh or body, breath with spirit, and insist that the last phrase of the verse must be translated as 'a living soul.' However, this understanding reads more into the biblical text than it really says. (1) The Hebrew words for 'flesh' or 'body' and 'spirit' do not occur in this passage. (2) The Hebrew expression nehphesh chayyah, which some insist on translating 'a living soul,' is used of fish and marine life in Genesis 1:30; and beasts and birds in 2:19. If 'soul' means the eternal part of a person or the sum total of man's 'body' and 'spirit' in Genesis 2:7, it must mean the eternal part of a fish or the sum total of a fish's 'body' and 'spirit' in Genesis 1:20, 21; etc. (3) The flow of the context in Genesis 2:7 indicates that the word translated being in RSV (nehphesh) means the whole person. The author's emphasis is on the gift of life" "The Living Word Commentary On the Old Testament – Genesis," page 103-104, Sweet Publishing Company, 1979, church of Christ.
Erdmann Dictionary of the Bible: "Far from referring simply to one aspect of a person, 'soul' refers to the whole person" page 1245.
Holman Bible Dictionary: "A human being is a totality of being, not a combination of various parts and impulses. According to the Old Testament understanding, a person is not a body, which happens to possess a soul. Instead, a person is a living soul...Because of God's breath of life; the man became 'a living being' (Gen. 2:7). A person thus is a complete totality, made up of human flesh, spirit (best understood as "the life-force'), and nephesh (best understood as "the total self' but often translated as 'soul')" page 61.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: "There is not dualism in the sense of separation, as though there could be full man either as body alone or as soul alone...together they make up the one man" Volume 1, page 134.
Hastings Bible Dictionary: “Soul is throughout the great part of the Bible simply the equivalent of ‘life’ embodied in living creature.”
T. Pierce Brown: "A consideration of EVERY passage in which these terms are used leads us to the consideration that the term 'soul' is a term that was applied in the Bible to every being that normally has sensory capacities (life), whether or not they have that capacity when the term is used referring to them. For example, one might see a body of a dead person and say, 'That poor soul is dead.' The Bible uses the term that way, even as we do, and it has nothing at all to do with the immorality or mortality of the soul. It simply means that the PERSON (the one who HAD life-soul-sensory capacity) is dead." "Soul and Spirit" Gospel Advocate, June 14, 1979, church of Christ.
(1) Nehphesh (soul): When nehphesh is used referring only to animals, it is translated nine different ways in the King James Version.
(2) Nehphesh (soul): When it is used referring to BOTH Animals and Man, it is translated in three different ways.
1. Creature (soul–nehphesh) Genesis 9:15; 9:16
2. The life (soul–nehphesh) Leviticus 17:11; 17:14
3. Soul (soul–nehphesh) Numbers 31:28
(3) Nehphesh (soul): When it has the animal appetites and desires of Man, it is translated in five different ways, (1) pleasure, (2) lust, (3) appetite, (3) and greedy (5) Soul.
1. Translated pleasure (soul–nehphesh) Deuteronomy 23:24
2. Translated lust (soul–nehphesh) Psalm 78:18
3. Translated appetite (soul–nehphesh) Proverbs 23:2. Ecclesiastes 6:7
4. Translated greedy (soul–nehphesh) Isaiah 56:11
5. Translated soul (Nehphesh) 13 things the "soul" (person) does
1. The soul dried away, Numbers 11:6
2. The soul lusts, Deuteronomy 12:15; 12:21; 14:26
3. The soul longs to eat flesh, Deuteronomy 12:20
4. The soul lusts after, Deuteronomy 12:20
5. The soul desires, Deuteronomy 14:26; 1 Samuel 2:16
6. The soul loathes, Deuteronomy 21:5
7. The soul refused, Job 6:7
8. The soul abhorred, Job 33:20; Psalm 107:18
9. The soul hunger, Proverbs 6:30
10. The soul satisfying, Proverbs 13:25
11. The soul empty, Isaiah 29:8
12. The soul has appetite, Isaiah 29:8
13. The soul desired figs, Micah 7:1
THE SOUL (PERSON-NEHPHESH) CAN BE HUNGRY,
HAVE AN APPETITE, BE THIRSTY, EAT MEAT
"Men do not despise a thief if he steals to satisfy himself (nehphesh—living being) when he is hungry" (Proverbs 6:30). An example of how well the translators hid the fact that this is the same word that they translated soul in other places when they did not want you to see it.
"I will set my face against that soul (nehphesh—living being) that eats blood, and will cut him off from among his people" (Leviticus 17:10).
"And you shall say, I will eat flesh, because your soul (nehphesh—living being) desires to eat flesh; you may eat flesh, after all the desire of your soul (nehphesh—living being)" (Deuteronomy 12:20). An immaterial something eating material flesh!
"And it shall be as when a hungry man dreams and, behold, he eats; but he awakes, and his soul (nehphesh—living being) is empty; or as when a thirsty man dreams, and behold, he drinks; but he awakes, and, behold, he is faint, and his soul (nehphesh—living being) has appetite" (Isaiah 29:8).
SOUL IS THE LIFE, NOT AN IMMORTAL SOMETHING
“You shall not eat flesh with its life (nehphesh—living being)” (Genesis 9:4).
“For the life (nehphesh—living being) of the flesh” (Leviticus 17:11; 17:14).
“Those who seek my life (nehphesh—living being)” (Psalm 38:12).
“For those who sought the Child’s life (soul–psukee) are dead’ (Matthew 2:20).
Many more passage that show that both nehphesh and psukee are the life of the person or animal, not in immortal something that has it’s own life and lives after the person is dead.
IF A SOUL CAN DIE
IT CANNOT BE IMMORTAL
Can whatever is intended by the Hebrew word "nehphesh" die? The Bible says over 320 times that the nehphesh (soul):
1. Can die
2. Can be killed by man
3. Or that it is already dead
If it can die, then whatever "nehphesh" is translated into IS something that can die. If the many words that "nehphesh" is translated into is something that can die, then the soul cannot be immortal, and it can die. To say that "nehphesh" (soul) is immortal and cannot die makes the Bible be wrong repeatedly. If the soul (nehphesh) is immortal and cannot die, the writers of the Bible did not know it.
SOULS CAN DIE, CAN BE DEAD
(1). Souls (nehpheshs) can die Numbers 23:10, Ezekiel 18:4, 20, Joshua 11:11. "They smote (killed) all the souls (nehphesh)” King James Version. “And they struck every person (nehpheshs) who was in it with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them; there was no one left who breathed” New American Standard Bible. Can an immortal soul can die or be utterly destroy? Not only does the Bible not say the soul is immortal, it denies it by saying often that the soul can die or be killed or is already dead.
(2). Souls (nehpheshs) can be murdered. Deuteronomy 12:23; Numbers 35:11-15.
(3). Souls (nehpheshs) can be killed Leviticus 24:17. An immortal soul can be killed? "Kills any person" (soul-nehphesh) Numbers 35:11, 15, 30, 31.
(4) “Let us not take his life” (soul-nehphesh) Genesis 37:21.
(5). Souls (nehpheshs) can be smote with the sword and utterly destroyed Joshua 11:11.
(6). Souls (nehpheshs) can be slain. An immortal soul can be slain? Deuteronomy 27:25.
(7). Souls (nehpheshs) can be destroyed. An immortal soul can be destroyed? Leviticus 23:30.
(8). Souls (nehpheshs) can be taken away 1 Kings 19:4.
(9). Souls (nehpheshs) can be sought to kill it Jeremiah 44:30.
(10). Souls (nehpheshs) cannot be kept alive. An immortal soul that cannot die but it cannot be kept alive? Psalm 22:29.
(11). Souls (nehpheshs) have blood and can bleed. "The blood of the souls of the poor" Jeremiah 2:34.
(12). "Let us not take his life (soul–nehphesh)" Genesis 37:21.
(13). "Life (soul–nehphesh) for life (soul–nehphesh) Immortal soul for immortal soul?" Exodus 21:23.
(14). "Any dead body (soul–nehphesh)" Leviticus 21:11.
(15). "That person (soul–nehphesh) will I destroy" Leviticus 23:30.
(16). "And if a man takes the life (soul–nehphesh) of any human being" Leviticus 24:17. Does anyone believe a person can take an immortal soul of any human being?
(17). "And he that smites any man mortally shall be put to death. And he that smites a beast mortally shall make it good, life (soul–nehphesh) for life (soul nehphesh) (soul for soul?)" Leviticus 24:18.
(18). "Because of a dead person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 5:2.
(19). "He shall not go near to a dead person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 6:6.
(20). "Because of a dead person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 6:11.
(21). "Unclean because of the dead person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 9:6, 7.
(23). "Because of a dead person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 9:10.
(23). "The one who touches the corpse of any person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 19:11.
(24). "Anyone who touches a corpse, the body (soul–nehphesh) of a man who has died" Numbers 19:13. How could anyone touch the corpse of something that has no substance and cannot die? “And the soul (nehphesh)" that touches it” (Numbers 19:22). By today’s definition of soul, (1) an immaterial something is dead and touched by man (2) and an immaterial soul touches a dead person.
(25). "Whosoever has killed any person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 31:19.
(26). "The manslayer who has killed any person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 35:11.
(27). "Anyone who kills a person (soul–nehphesh) unintentionally may flee there" Numbers 35:15.
(28). "If anyone kills a person (soul–nehphesh)" Numbers 35:30.
(29). "And take his life (soul–nehphesh)" Deuteronomy 19:6.
(30). "And strikes him so that he (soul–nehphesh) dies" Deuteronomy 19:11.
(31). "Life (soul-nehphesh) for life (soul–nehphesh), eye for eye, tooth for tooth" Deuteronomy 19:21.
(32). "A man rises against his neighbor and murders him (soul-nehphesh)" Deuteronomy 22:26.
(33). "Cursed be he who takes a bride to slay an innocent person (soul–nehphesh)" Deuteronomy 27:25.
(34). "And deliver our lives (souls–nehpheshs) from death" Joshua 2:13.
(35). "Our life (soul–nehphesh) for yours" Joshua 2:13. Not, “Our immortal souls for your immortal souls.”
(36). "And they smote all the souls (souls–nehpheshs) that were therein with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them; there were none left that breathed" Joshua 11:11.
(37). "He utterly destroyed them and all the souls (souls–nehpheshs) that were therein; he left none remaining" Joshua 10:28.
(38). "And he smote it with the edge of the sword, and all the souls (souls–nehpheshs) that were therein; he left none remaining in it" Joshua 10:30.
(39). "And all the souls (souls–nehpheshs) that were therein" Joshua 10:32.
(40). "And all the souls (souls–nehpheshs) that were therein he utterly destroyed that day" Joshua 10:35.
(41). "But he utterly destroyed it, and all the souls (souls–nehpheshs) that were therein" Joshua 10:37.
(42). "And he captured it and its king and all its cities, and they smote them with the edge of the sword, and utterly destroyed all the souls (souls–nehpheshs) that were therein" Joshua 10:39. Can immortal souls be utterly destroyed with the sword?
(43). "Who kills any person (soul–nehphesh)" Joshua 20:9. Not, “Who kills any immortal soul that cannot be killed.”
(44). "That kills any person (soul–nehphesh)" Joshua 20:3.
(45). "That his soul (soul–nehphesh) was vexed to death" Judges 16:16 "annoyed to death" New American Standard Version. We say, "He worried me to dead."
(46). "Let me (soul–nehphesh) die" Judges 16:30. "Let my soul that cannot die, die anyway?"
(47). "And you lose your life (soul–nehphesh), with the lives (souls–nehphesh) of your household" Judges 18:25.
(48). "If you do not save your life (soul–nehphesh) tonight" 1 Samuel 19:11.
(49). "The death of all the persons (souls–nehpheshs) of your father's house" 1 Samuel 22:22.
(50). "He that seeks my life (soul–nehphesh) seeks your life (soul–nehphesh)" 1 Samuel 22:23.
(51). "He is seeking my life (soul–nehphesh)" 1 Samuel 20:1.
(52). "And David saw that Saul was come out to seek his life (soul–nehphesh)" 1 Samuel 23:15.
(53). "You are lying in wait for my soul (soul–nehphesh) to take it" 1 Samuel 24:11.
(54). "To pursue you and to seek your soul (soul–nehphesh1 Samuel 25:29 also (55) 2 Samuel 4:8, (56) 2 Samuel 16:11, (57) 1. Kings 19:10, (58) 1 Kings19:14, (59) Psalm 35:4, (60) Psalm 38:12, (61) Psalm 35:13, (62) Psalm 40:14, (63) Psalm 40:15, (64) Jeremiah 40:14, (65) Jeremiah 40:15.
(66). "Deliver him that smote his brother, that we may kill him for the life (soul–nehphesh) of his brother whom he slew" 2 Samuel 14:7.
(67). "Who today have saved your life (soul–nehphesh) and the lives (souls-nehpheshs) of your sons and daughter, the lives (soul–nehphesh) of your wives, and the lives (souls-nehpheshs) of your concubines" 2 Samuel 19:5.
(68). "Have you asked for the life (soul–nehphesh) of your enemies" 1 Kings 3:11.
(69). "Prolong my life (soul–nehphesh)" Job 6:11. Prolong the life of an immortal soul?
(70). "For himself that he might die, and said, It is enough; now, O Lord, take my life (soul-nehphesh)" 1 Kings 19:4.
(71). "A man that is laden with the blood of any person (soul–nehphesh) shall flee unto the pit; let no man stay him" Proverbs 28:17.
(72). "The blood of the souls (souls–nehpheshs) of the innocent poor" Jeremiah 2:34. An immaterial, invisible, part of a person that has no substance had blood!
(73). "Ammon has sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to take your life (soul-nehphesh)...wherefore should he take your life (soul–nehphesh)" Jeremiah 40:14-15.
(74). "To slay the souls (souls–nehpheshs) that should not die and to save the souls (souls–nehpheshs) alive that should not live" Ezekiel 13:19. If the soul were something that is immortal and cannot die, this passage is completely nonsense.
(75). "The soul (soul–nehphesh) who sins will die" Ezekiel 18:4.
(76). Ezekiel 18:20
This is a person dying (being put to death) for a sin under the Old Testament law, but is almost always used referring to a part of a person that cannot die by those who believe a soul cannot die. When this is misapply to some inter part of a person, as is often is, then this is an undeniable statement that their immortal inter part of a person that they say cannot die will die if it sins, and that the soul will not have everlasting life with torment. This is definitely not what they wanted, but what they made in their attempt to make the soul immortal. If "soul" means "an immortal inter part of a person that cannot die," then James said, "Shall save an immortal inter part of man, which cannot die, from death" James 5:20. This theology makes nonsense of the Bible.
The divine sentence, "The soul that sins, it shall die" has been revised to say, "The soul that sins, it shall live eternally in torment." Not only must this be changed from "die" to "eternal life" but after making the change then torment must be added; “the soul that sins, it shall live forever being eternally torment by God.” To make it teach what many want it to teach, first, God's word must be changed and then added to.
“Shall die” in verse four is in contrast to “shall surely live” in verse nine. It is life or death of a living person under the Law that is being spoken of, not two kinds of life after death.
(77). "By shedding blood and destroying lives (nehphesh—living being)" Ezekiel 22:27.
(78). "Like a roaring lion ravening the prey: they have devoured souls (nehphesh—living being)" Ezekiel 22:25.
(79) “In whose hand is the life (nehphesh—living being) of every living thing" (Job 12:10). “The soul of every living thing” King James Version.
(80). "He did not spare their soul (nehphesh—living being) from death, but gave over their life to the plague, and smote all the firstborn in Egypt" (Psalm 78:50).
(81). IN OVER 320 (over one third) OF THE ABOUT 870 TIMES THAT SOUL (nehphesh) IS USED:
Š The soul is already dead.
Š The soul can die, and can be killed.
Š The soul can be sought to be killed.
Š The soul can be affected.
Š The soul can be smote (killed).
Š The soul can be cut off.
Š The soul can be murdered.
Š The soul can be delivered from death.
Š The soul can be buried.
In most of these passages the translators of the King James and other translations have hidden from the readers that the very thing they believe to be immortal and cannot die does die by picking when they translated nehphesh into soul and when the picked when to translate "nehphesh" into "life," "person" and many other words, but even in the King James Version there are many passages which say souls (nehpheshs) can and do die.
SOULS CAN BE KILLED BY OTHERS
Š "We feared greatly for our soul (nehphesh—living being) because of you" (Joshua 9:24).
Š "All the men who were seeking your soul (nehphesh—living being) are dead" (Exodus 4:19).
Š “Saul had come out to seek his life (nehphesh—living being) while David was in the wilderness” (1 Samuel 23:15).
Š They had to flee to save their souls (nehphesh—living being) (2 King 7:7), or their souls (nehphesh—living being) would be utterly destroyed "with the edge of the sword" or other weapons (Joshua 10:27; 10:30; 10:32; 10:35, 10:37; 10:39).
Š “And deliver our lives (nehphesh—living being) from death” (Joshua 2:13).
SOULS CAN DIE FOR LACK OF FOOD
Š Not only could their souls (nehphesh—living beings) be killed by their enemies, but their souls (nehphesh—living beings) could also die for lack of food (Lamentations 1:11; Numbers 11:6).
SOULS CAN EAT FOOD
Š Leviticus 7:18; 7:20; 7:25; 7:27 and others.
Š Also, Genesis 9:4; 9:5; 12:13; 17:14; 19:17; 19:19; 19:20; 32:30; 32:31; 35:18; 37:21; Exodus 21:23; 30:12; 30:15; 31:14; Leviticus 7:21; 17:11; 17:12; 17:14; 19:8; 21:1; 21:11; 22:3; 24:17; 24:18; Numbers 5:2; 6:6; 9:6; 9:7; 9:10; 9:18; 19:11; 19:13; 19:20; 23:10; 31:19; 35:11; 35:15; 35:30; 35:31; Deuteronomy 12:23; Joshua 11:11; 20:3; 20:9; Judges 5:28; 12:3; 16:16; 18:25; Ruth; 4:15; 1 Samuel 1:19; 1: 20; 1:23; 23:15; 23:20; 25:29; 28:9; 28:21; 2 Samuel 4:8; 14:7; 16:11; 19:5; 19:6; 1 Kings 1:12; 1:29; 3:11; 17:21; 17:22; 19:10; 19:14; 20:32; 2 Kings 1:13; 19:24; 1 Chronicles 11:19; 2 Chronicles 11:11; Esther 7:7; Job 13:14; 30:16; 33:18; 33:22; 36:14; Psalm 7:2; 17:13; 22:20; 22:21; 22:29: 22:30; 31:13; 33:19; 35:4; 35:17; 38:12; 38:13; 70:2; 70:3; 71:10; Proverbs 1:19; 7:23; 12:10; 13:3; 23:14; Isaiah 10:18; 43:4; Jeremiah 2:34; 4:30; 34:20-21; 38:2; 38:16; 39:18; 40:15; 44:30; 45:5; 49:37; Ezekiel 17:17; 18:4; 18:20; 18:27; 22:25; 22:27; Jonah 4:3; 4:6.
Summary: The "nehphesh (soul)" of the Old Testament is an earthly being, man, animal, or sea creature, both living or dead. It can die, it can be dead, be killed, be sought to kill, be smote, die from a lack of food or water, be cut off, be murdered, be delivered from death, be born, live, sorrow, eat, drink water, desire, be discontented, be grieved, be bound with a bond, be affected, loathes, lust, have anguish, etc. Not one of the about 870 times that nehphesh is used does it have reference to an invisible, immaterial something in a person that has no substance and cannot die. Nehphesh in the Old Testament and psukee in the New Testament are together used about 967 times with over one-third being associated with the death of the soul (person). Some (nehpheshs–souls) are dead. Some are dying. Some are in fear of death. Some have those who are trying to kill them. Some are saved from death, etc. On the other hand, in the 976 times soul is used, not one time is the soul said to be deathless or immortal.
In about thirty-two passages souls (nehpheshs) are spoken of as being killed by man “And he that kills any man (nehphesh) shall surely be put to death. And he that kills a beast (nehphesh) shall make it good; beast (nehphesh) for beast (nehphesh)” Leviticus 25:17-18. Nehphesh–soul is used four times in the Hebrew, but because of the bias of the translators not one time is it translated soul in the King James Version. They changed soul into beast to deliberately hide from their readers that animals, the same as men, are souls—living beings that can and do die. (See Joshua 10:28; 30; 32; 35; 37; 39; Deuteronomy 27:25; Leviticus 24:17-18).
In about thirteen passages souls (nehpheshs) of men are said to be actually dead (see Numbers 6:6; Leviticus 21:11). In many of these passages, the King James Version and others translated nehphesh as life or body; and the English reader cannot see that animals are souls (are living beings), and that man kills souls of both men and animals, and sometimes souls are actually dead. Under the Law anyone that touched a dead body was unclean. “Dead body” (nehphesh) Leviticus 21:11 “Dead body” (nehphesh) Numbers 6:6. Corpses are dead souls, and anyone who came in contact with a dead soul was unclean.
Most of the times when it is translated "soul," even those who believe in a part of a person that lives after death and before the resurrection admits it is not used to mean a deathless immortal something that is in a person, something that will live without the person after the person is dead. The whole person dies unto the resurrection (Ezekiel 18:20; Psalm 22:29; 33:18-19; Matthew 10:28; Matthew 16:26; James 5:20). Not just the person's body.
This clearly shows that the meaning of the Hebrew word nehphesh is something that is not immortal, and that it can die, or that it can be already is dead. There is no other word in the Bible which could be translated into Plato's immortal soul; therefore, the translators had to use this word and hide, the best they could, the fact that nehphesh can and does die.
Of the hundreds of times Nehphesh is used in the Old Testament only five are used in the same passage as sheol. Of these five the Kings James Version sheol is translated Hell three times (Psalm 16:10; 86:13; Proverbs 23:14). The other two they had to translate grave (Psalm 30:3; 89:48). In all five the nehphesh (soul–life) is delivered from or brought up from sheol (grave). What is said in all five is as far from today’s teaching on Hell as it is possible to be. The New International Version translates sheol into grave in all five passages, and translates nehphesh into, (1) me, (2) himself, (3) me, (4) me, (5) and soul.
The only way for the translators to hide that the nehphesh of the Old Testament can die, bleed, be dead was by rightly translating it as something mortal as it is. In most translations nehphesh is sometimes translated to be immortal, sometime as mortal, often in the same passages. How could it be known when it was mortal and when it was immortal? The only answer is that the translators were trying to put Plato’s immortal soul in the Bible by mistranslating when they could, but found nehphesh many times would not make sense if translated into something immortal and deathless.
Not one time is nehphesh an immortal something, but it is translated mortally in the King James Version. “And smite him mortally (nehphesh)” (Deuteronomy19:11).
The Companion Bible, Appendix 13 says nehphesh (life-soul) is used:
Just one of the many examples of the absurdity of the translations of nehphesh in the King James Version with the meaning of "soul" as it is used today, an invisible, no substance something in a person that no one has ever seen or can see that is immortal and cannot die. "For mine enemies speak against me; and they that lay wait for my soul (nehphesh) take counsel together" (Psalm 70:10). How could anyone lay in wait (ambush) for an undying invisible something that is now in a person that no one can see? How could anyone kill something that cannot die even if they could see it?
"Deliver my soul" (nehphesh) Psalm 17:13 in today's English would be "Save my life" (nehphesh).
Many more times "soul" (nehphesh) would only make sense if translated "life." To apply today's meaning, "an undying invisible something that is now in a person" makes many passages be total nonsense. Today's meaning of "soul" is very different from the meaning of nehphesh in Biblical times, which makes "soul" be a mistranslation. When anyone reads the Bible, and reads "soul," and knows only what the word "soul" means today, they cannot understand what God said. Many English translations use "soul" and "person" interchangeable. The Revised Standard uses "person" frequently where the King James used "soul." The problem is that most English readers would not know that when the translators said a "person" died, that the translators are hiding the fact that "person" (soul-nehphesh) is the same word that is translated "soul" in many places. Why did some translators do this? Was it because they did not believe an immortal "soul" can die, but a person can die? If the "soul" (nehphesh) dies, it would not be immortal; therefore, they were forced to use "person" or "life" in many places to hide the fact from you that the nehphesh can die. The truth is that they were trying to put "soul" with today's meaning in the Bible despite the fact that it is not. If they had been consistent in translating, they would not have been able to add the doctrine of an undying soul in the Bible.
"The Lord of hosts has sworn by Himself (soul-nehphesh)" (Jeremiah 51:14). By His own being or person. God "could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself (psukee-soul)" (Hebrews 6:13). Not even the King James translators wanted God to have an invisible inter part that would live after the rest of Him was dead. God's nehphesh and man's nehphesh are their being, person, not an invisible something that is in God or in a person.
All the Old Testament words, which are translated life, spirit, breath, or soul, are all used referring to both persons and animals. Every word that is used to prove a person has an immortal soul or an immortal spirit would also prove all breathing creatures have an in immortal soul or spirit if they proved a person does.
(1) Nehphesh/soul-life-living being is used to describe all living beings.
(2) Nshahmah/breath is also used to describe all living being/breath of life; all living things that breathes (Used 24 times).
Š Used to describe man, "Breathed into his nostrils the BREATH of life" Genesis 2:7; 1 Kings 17:17; Job 27:3.
Š Used to describe man and animals, both man and animals have the same nshahmah (breath of life-spirit).
Š "All in whose nostrils was the BREATH (nshahmah) of the spirit of life, of all that was on the dry land, died" Genesis 7:22. All living being, man, and animals.
Š "But of the cities of these peoples, that Jehovah your God gives you for an inheritance, you shall save alive nothing that BREATHS (nshahmah)" Deuteronomy 20:16. All living being, both man and animals.
Š "So Joshua smote all the land, the hill-country, and the South, and the lowland, and the slopes, and all their kings: he left none remaining, but he utterly destroyed all that BREATHED (nshahmah)" Joshua 10:40. All living being, both man and animals that had life, that breathed (nshahmah) were killed.
Š "And they smote all the souls that were therein with the edge of the sword, utterly destroying them; there were none left that BREATHED (nshahmah)" Joshua 11:11. All living being, both man and animals that breathed were killed.
Š Also, Joshua 11:14; 1 Kings 15:29; Job 34:14; Psalm 150:6.
Not one of the 24 times nshahmah is used says anything about a part of a person that is immortal. As nahahmah is translated in the New International Version.
1. Genesis 2:7 “Breathed into his nostrils the breath (nshahmuh) of life.”
2. Genesis 7:22 “Everything on dry land that had the breath of life (nshahmuh) in its nostrils died.”
3. Deuteronomy 20:16 “Do not leave alive anything that breathes (nshahmuh).”
4. Joshua 10:40 “He totally destroyed all who breathed (nshahmuh).”
5. Joshua 11:11 “They totally destroyed them, not sparing anything that breathed (nshahmuh).”
6. Joshua 11:14 “But all the people they put to the sword until they completely destroyed them, not sparing anyone that breathed (nshahmuh).”
7. 2 Samuel 22:16 “At the blast of breath (nshahmuh) from his nostrils.”
8. 1 Kings 15:29 “He did not leave Jeroboam anyone that breathed (nshahmuh), but destroyed them all.”
9. 1 Kings 17:17 “He grew worse and worse, and finally stopped breathing (nshahmuh).”
10. Job 4:9 (Hebrew dualism in Job—the same thing said in two different ways).
a. “At the breath (ruach) of God they are destroyed:
b. At the blast (nshahmuh) of his anger they perish.”
11. Job 26:4
a. “Who has helped you utter these words?
b. And whose spirit (nshahmuh) spoke from your mouth?”
12. Job 27:3
a. “As long as I have life (ruach) within me,
b. The breath (nshahmuh) of God in my nostrils.”
13. Job 32:8
a. “But it is the spirit (ruach) in a man,
b. The breath (nshahmuh) of the Almighty.”
14. Job 33:4
a. “The Spirit of God made me;
b. The breath (nshahmuh) of the Almighty gives me life.”
15. Job 34:14-15 “If it was his intention and he withdrew his spirit and breath (nshahmuh).
Š All mankind would perish together,
Š And man would return to the dust.”
16. Job 37:10
a. “The tempest comes out from its chamber, the cold from the driving winds.
b. The breath (nshahmuh) of God produces ice, and the broad waters become frozen.”
17. Psalm 18:15 “O Lord, at the blast (nshahmuh) of breath from your nostrils.”
18. Psalm 150:6 “Let everything that has breath (nshahmuh) praise the Lord.”
19. Proverbs 20:27 “The lamp of the Lord searches the spirit (nshahmuh) of a man; it searches out his inmost being.”
20. Isaiah 2:22 “Stop trusting in man, who has but a breath (nshahmuh) in his nostrils.”
21. Isaiah 30:33 “The breath (nshahmuh) of the Lord, like a stream of burning sulfur, sets it ablaze.”
22. Isaiah 42:5 “Who gives breath (nshahmuh) to its people, and life to those who walk on it.”
23. Isaiah 57:16 “The breath (nshahmuh) of man that I have created.” “Spirit” in King James Version.
24. Daniel 10:17 “My strength is gone and I can hardly breathe (nshahmuh).”
Š Of the twenty-four times nshahmuh is in the Hebrew, it is translated soul only three times in the King James Version, Job 26:4, Proverbs 20:27; Isaiah 57:16.
(3) Ruach/spirit-breath: Is used of:
Š God (Exodus 15:8; 2 Samuel 22:16; Isaiah 4:4)
Š Spirit of the Lord (Zephaniah 4:6)
Š Heavenly being (Psalm 104:4)
(4) Ruach/spirit-breath: Is also used to describe all earthly living beings.
Ruach and nshahmuh have very near if not the same meaning.
Š “All in whose nostrils was the breath (nshahmuh) of the spirit of life, died” (Genesis 7:22).
Š "To destroy all flesh in which is the breath (ruach) of life" (Genesis 6:17).
Both are used in Hebrew dualism in Job three times as two ways of saying the same thing (Job 4:9; 27:3; 32:8).
Š Job 4:9:
o “By the breath (ruach) of God they perish,
o And by the blast (nshahmuh) of His anger they come to an end”
Š Job 27:3:
o “All the while my breath (nshahmuh) is in me,
o And the spirit (ruach) of God is in my nostrils.”
Š Job 32:8:
o “But it is a spirit (ruach) in man,
o And the breath (nshahmuh) of the Almighty gives them understanding.”
The above is an example of the many times the two seem to be used interchangeable and they are both the breath or life of a living being that is being spoken of. Nshahmuh is limited to the air or breath of the mouth of any breathing being; ruach also means any breathing being but has a must broader use in that it is used of wind and any air movement. Neither the breath (nshahmuh) of a person, or the breath (ruach) of a person is not an immortal entity added to the person that has life in itself apart from the life of the person any more then the breath (nshahmuh) of God, or the breath (ruach) of God is an entity that has life in itself apart from God.
Ruach is translated sixteen different ways
In the King James Version
Of about 389 times ruach is used in the Old Testament it is translated wind about 90 times, breath 28 times, blast 4 times, air, windy, tempest, whirlwind, tempest, and breath. Both ruach and nshahmuh are basically translated with the same words, both have something to do with the breath or air without which there would be no life; in Genesis 2:7 it was when God breathed into Adam’s nostrils the breath of life (nshahmah) that Adam became a living being.
There is no suggestion in any one of the many times ruach is used referring both to mankind and to animals that ruach is an immaterial, immortal something that has it’s own life and will live after the death of the person or animal that it is in.
Š BREATH (ruach-spirit)
Š “All in whose nostrils was the BREATH (ruach) of life” (Genesis 6:17; 7:15).
Š "By the BREATH (ruach) of his mouth" (Genesis 6:17; Psalm 104:29, Job 15:30).
Š "By the BREATH (ruach-spirit) of his mouth" (Job 15:30).
Š "All in whose nostrils was the BREATH (ruach-spirit) of life" (Genesis 7:22).
Š "To destroy all flesh in which is the BREATH (ruach-spirit) of life" (Genesis 6:17).
Š "So they went into the ark to Noah, by twos of all flesh in which was the BREATH (ruach-spirit) of life" (Genesis 7:15).
Š "No BREATH (ruach-spirit) in them" (Jeremiah 10:14). Why not, "No SPIRIT (ruach-spirit) in them" or "Takes away their SPIRIT (ruach-spirit)" (Psalm 104:29)? How did the translators know when the same word was wind, breath, spirit, blast, air, mind, courage, cool, or anger? How are those who read their translation to know that these are all the same word in the Hebrew? Idols are described as not having breath (ruach) (Habakkuk 2:19) which means idols have no life just as a person without breath has no life.
Š "Every goldsmith...his molten images are deceitful, and there is no BREATH (ruach-spirit) in them" (Jeremiah 51:17).
Š "Takes away their BREATH (ruach-spirit)" (Psalm 104:29).
Š "As one dies so dies the other; indeed, they all have the same BREATH (ruach-spirit) and there is no advantage for man over beast" (Ecclesiastes 3:19).
Š WIND (ruach-spirit)
Š "God made a WIND (ruach-spirit) to pass over" (Genesis 8:1).
Š "Like the chaff, which the WIND (ruach-spirit) drives" (Psalm 1:4).
Š "You did blow with your WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Exodus 15:10).
Š "Clouds and WIND (ruach-spirit) without rain" (Proverbs 25:14).
Š "My escape from the WINDY (ruach-spirit) storm" (Psalm 55:8).
Š "A WHIRLWIND (ruach-spirit) came out of the north" (Ezekiel 1:4).
Š "A destroying WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Jeremiah 51:1).
Š "A strong WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Job 8:2).
Š "An horrible TEMPEST (ruach-spirit)" (Psalm 11:6).
Š "You shall scatter in the WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Ezekiel 5:2).
Š "An east WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Exodus 10:13).
Š "A mighty strong west WIND (ruach-spirit)" (Exodus 10:19).
Š Psalm 1:4, Exodus 15:10
Š WINDY “My escape from the WINDY (ruach) storm” (Psalm 55:8).
Š WHIRLWIND “A WHIRLWIND (ruach) came out of the north" (Ezekiel 1:4).
Š TEMPEST “An horrible TEMPEST (ruach)" (Psalm 116).
Š SPIRIT (ruach-spirit). Why was the same word translated
“By the BREATH (ruach) of his mouth” (Job 15:30), and then
“And the SPIRIT (ruach) of God in my nostrils”(Job 27:3)?
Were they saying God has an “immaterial invisible” (Vine) something in Him that can exist after His death, as we are told that mankind has? There is no possible way that the translators could have known when the same word (ruach) was breath of any mortal being, and when it was an immortal deathless something that does not breath air; the two meaning are nothing alike. “You take away their breath (ruach), they die, and return to their dust. You send forth your spirit (ruach), they are created: and you renew the face of the earth” (Psalm 105:29-30). The spirit as it is used today cannot die; therefore, this ruach could not be translated spirit, but when the earth is renewed by new life, the translated give this new life a spirit (ruach), not just breath (ruach).
Š Holman Christian Standard Bible “When You hide Your face, they are terrified; when You take away their breath (ruach), they die and return to the dust. When You send Your breath (ruach), they are created, and You renew the face of the earth.”
Š Amplified Bible “When You hide Your face, they are troubled and dismayed; when You take away their breath (ruach), they die and return to their dust. When You send forth Your Spirit and give them breath (ruach), they are created, and You replenish the face of the ground.”
Š Common English Bible “But when you hide your face, they are terrified; when you take away their breath (ruach), they die and return to dust. When you let loose your breath (ruach), they are created, and you make the surface of the ground brand-new again.”
Š New Century Version “When you turn away from them, they become frightened. When you take away their breath (ruach), they die and turn to dust. When you breathe (ruach) on them, they are created, and you make the land new again.”
Š Holman Christian Standard Bible “When You hide Your face, they are terrified; when You take away their breath (ruach), they die and return to the dust. When You send Your breath (ruach), they are created, and You renew the face of the earth.”
Does the number of times “Spirit” is used in the difference translations show the scholars that translated them were easing away from the King James Version?
Š 236 times in King James Version
Š 221 times in New American Standard Bible
Š 193 times in New International Version
Š 167 times in New Living Translation
Š 79 times in Contemporary English Version
Š 131 times in The Message
Š “And the SPIRIT (ruach) of God in my nostrils” (Job 27:3)
Š "SPIRIT (ruach) of God" (Genesis 1:2)
Š "And the SPIRIT (ruach) shall return unto God" (Ecclesiastes 12:7)
Š "And the SPIRIT (ruach) of the beast that goes downward" (Ecclesiastes 3:21)
SPIRIT (ruach-spirit) in passages that has reference to attitude, behavior, thinking, disposition, mood, or temperament. As “A happy disposition,” “good attitude” or “bad mood.” Now of these passages are speaking of in immortal, no substance something that has it own life, and will live even after the person it is in is dead; that will live before and without the resurrection; the teaching of Plato says a soul will live without a resurrection, it will live freed from the person it was trapped in.
Š "A lying SPIRIT (ruach)" (1 Kings 22:23)
Š "The SPIRIT (ruach) of jealousy came" (Genesis 1:2; 41:8, Numbers 5:14; 5:30)
Š “The SPIRIT (ruach) of heaviness” (Isaiah 61:3)
Š "The SPIRIT (ruach) of jealousy came" (Numbers 5:30)
Š "Because he had another SPIRIT (ruach)" (Numbers 14:24)
Š "The SPIRIT (ruach) entered into me" (Ezekiel 2:2; 3:24)
Š “Neither was there SPIRIT (ruach) in them” (Joshua 5:1)
Š "And a new SPIRIT (ruach) will I put within you" (Ezekiel 36:26)
Š "God hardened his SPIRIT (ruach)" (Deuteronomy 2:30)
Š "Anguish of SPIRIT (ruach)" (Exodus 6:9)
Š "SPIRIT (ruach) of wisdom" (Exodus 28:3)
Š "Joshua...was filled with the SPIRIT (ruach) of wisdom" (Deuteronomy 34:9)
Š "Sorrowful SPIRIT (ruach)" (2 Samuel 1:15)
Š "Why is your SPIRIT (ruach) so sad" (1 Kings 21:5)
Š "SPIRIT (ruach) was troubled" (Genesis 41:8)
Š "The sacrifices of God are a broken SPIRIT (ruach)" (Psalm 51:7)
Š "Hasty of SPIRIT (ruach)" (Proverbs 14.29)
Š “By sorrow of the heart the SPIRIT (ruach) is broken” (Proverbs 15:13)
Š "An haughty SPIRIT (ruach)" (Proverbs 16:18)
Š "An humble SPIRIT (Proverbs 16:19)
W. E. Vine, “Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary,” pages 240-241 gives nine ways spirit-ruach is used in the Old Testament.
1. First, this word means “breath.”
2. Second, this word can be used with emphasis on the invisible, intangible, fleeting quality of air.
3. Third, ruach can mean, “wind.”
4. Fourth, the wind represents direction.
5. Fifth, ruach frequently represents the element of life in a man, his natural “spirit”: “And all flesh died that moved upon the earth…All in whose nostrils was the breath of life.” (Gen. 7:21-22). In these verses the animals have a “spirit” (cf. Ps. 104:29)…All the ways of a man are clean in his own eyes; but the Lord weigheth the spirits (NASB, “motives”).
6. Sixth, ruach is often used of:
Š A man’s mind-set, disposition, or “temper”: “Blessed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth not iniquity, and in whose spirit there is no guile” (Ps. 32:2). In Ezek. 13:3 the word is used of one’s mind or thinking: “Woe unto the foolish prophets, that follow their own spirit, and have seen nothing” (cf. Prov. 29:11).
Š Ruach can represent particular dispositions, as it does in Josh. 2:11: “And as soon as we had heard this things, out hearts did melt, neither did there remain any more courage in any man, because of you…” (cf. Josh. 5:1; Job 15:12).
Š Another disposition represented by this word is “temper”: “If the spirit (temper) of the ruler rise up against thee, leave not thy place…” (Eccl. 10:4). David prayed that God would “restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with the free Spirit” (Ps. 51:12). In this verse “joy of salvation” and “free Spirit” are parallel and; therefore, synonymous terms. Therefore, “spirit” refers to one’s inner disposition, just as “joy” refers to an inner emotion.
7. Seventh, the Bible often speaks of God’s “Spirit.”
8. Eight, the non-material beings (angels) in heaven are sometimes called “spirits.”
9. Nine, the “spirit” may also be used of that which enables a man to do a particular job of that which represents the essence of a quality of man…
Š Just as in the New Testament, when spirit is used in reference to a person, it is the disposition of the persons mind or thinking.
Š BLAST “And at the blast (ruach)" of Thy (God) nostrils the waters were piled up” (Exodus 15:8). "BLASH (ruach-spirit) of your nostrils" (2 Kings 19:7). Also 2 Samuel 22:6.
Š AIR "That no AIR (ruach-spirit) can come between them" (Job 41:16; 41:8).
Š MIND "A fool utters all his MIND (ruach-spirit)” (Genesis 26:35, Proverbs 29:11).
Š COURAGE "Neither did there remain any more COURAGE (ruach-spirit) in them" (Joshua 5:1).
Š COOL "Walking in the garden in the COOL (ruach-spirit) of the day" (Genesis 3:8).
Š ANGER "Their ANGER (ruach-spirit) was abated" (Judges 8:3).
Š SIDE (Jeremiah 52:23; Ezekiel 42:16; 42:17; 42:18; 42:19; “side wind” in footnote).
Š QUARTERS (ruach-spirit) (1 Chronicles 9:24).
Š SPIRITUAL (ruach-spirit) (Hosea 9:7).
Š VAIN (ruach-spirit) (Job 15:2; 16:3).
Why did the translators translate the word "ruach" into "spirit" in one place, and "blast" or "wind" in others? The meaning of "spirit" as it was used in 1611 and as it is used today, an immortality no substance something in a person is not a thirty-first cousin to "wind" or "breath," etc., yet the translators, at will, translated the same word into many words, into things that have meaning that are worlds apart. If the same word has two completely different meanings:
1. One meaning that had reference to the mortal person or animal.
2. And another meaning of the same would that would have had reference to the immortal something that is in a person that animals do not have.
Š “Ruach,” is it mortal or immortal? If ruach is something that is in a person that is immortal, then ruach is also something that is in an animal that is immortal.
How could the Hebrew people know that when was speaking of a person, it was speaking on something in the person that is immortal, but when it was speaking of an animal, it was speaking of something in the animal that was not immortal? How could the translators know? They could not. They had to put their theology into the Bible, even if they could not be consistent. How could anyone read the Kings James Version and know that anger, cool, courage, air, mind, breath, wind, blast, and spirit are the same thing? Most English reader today would not know that "wind" and "spirit" are all indiscriminately translated from the same word, and that almost without exception today's reader would understand "spirit" to be an immortal soul, but would never understand "wind" to be an immortal soul. Those who do not read Hebrew are misled by such indiscriminately translations.
Summary: Nehphesh, nshahmah, and ruach are something that both a person and an animal have in common, and are something that can and does die. Both an animal and a man are a soul, a living being of this earth. Animals or people do not have a soul, an immortal inter part that cannot die, and that it will live after the death of the animal or person it is in; they are a soul—they are both a living being. Without the resurrection there would be no life for anyone after death.
How nehphesh and psukee are translated in seven different versions and in different verses.
| K.J.V. | N.K.J.V. | N.A.S.V. | R.S.V. |
Gen 1:20 | creatures | creatures | creatures | creatures |
Gen 2:7 | soul | living being| living being| living being|
Gen 9:5 | life | life | life | life |
Mt 16:25-26|life & soul | life & soul | life & soul | life 4 times|
Acts 3:23 | soul | soul | soul | soul |
1 Cor15:45 | soul | living being| soul | living being|
1 Pet 3:20 | souls | soul | persons | persons |
Rev 16:3 | soul | creature | living thing| living thing|
| N.R.S.V. | N.I.V. |Robert Young|
Gen 1:20 | creatures | creatures | creature |
Gen 2:7 | living being| living being |living being-creature|
Gen 9:5 | life | life | life |
Mt 16:25-26| life 4 times| life & soul | soul |
Acts 3:23 | everyone | anyone | soul |
1 Cor15:45 | living being| living being | creature |
1 Pet 3:20 | persons | people | soul |
Rev 16:3 | living thing| living thing | soul |
Nephesh and psukee are used over 976 times. The King James Version translated them soul about half of the time, other translations much less.
King James Version (1611) 498 of 976 times
New King James Version (1982) 341 of 976 times
The New King James Version has soul 157 times less then the King James Version.
New American Standard Version (1960) 289 of 976 times
New International Version (1987) 136 of 976 times
New International Version Updated (2010) 95 of 976 times
The New International Version 2010 Update took soul out of the New International Version 41 times. It used soul only 95 out of over 976 times.
Today’s New International Version (1996) 41 of 976 times
English Standard Version (2001) 296 of 976 times
Amplified Bible (1987) 190 of 976 times
Holman Christian Standard Bible (1999) 58 of 976 times
New Century Version (1987) 35 of 976 times
Contemporary Revised English Bible (1995) 26 of 976 times
God’s Word Translation (1995) 110 of 976 times
Worldwide English New Testament (1995) 12 of 976 times
Christian Bible New Testament (1995) 0 of 976 times
IN THE NEW TESTAMENT: Is the use of the English word "soul" as a translation of psukee dying? Of the 106 times psukee is used it is translated soul only:
King James Version (1611) 58 of 106 times
American Standard Version (1901) 56 of 106 times
New American Standard Version (1960) 47 of 106 times
New Revised Standard (1946) 33 of 106 times
New International Version (1978) 25 of 106 times
New International Version Updated (2010) 22 of 106 times
36 times less than the King James Version .
The Christian Bible (1991) 0 of 106 times
Contemporary English Version (1995) 13 of 106 times
Holman Christian Standard Bible (1999) 23 of 106 times
Worldwide English Version (2006) 8 of 106 times
It is those who are members of churches that believe a person has an immortal soul that are little by little taking the word "soul" out of the Bible. Why is soul being used less in the newer translations? These translators knew "soul" is an English word that did not then exist as the word is used today, and that soul is not a translation of nehphesh or psukee; at the time the Bible was written neither nehphesh nor psukee had the meaning that the English word “soul” has today.
A few of the many examples that show why the numbers above are difficult in difficult translations.
Acts 15:24-26 is an example of how the translation of psukee was changed even in the same passage by the translators when it would not fit in with their belief about an immortal soul. “Since we have heard that some of our number to whom we gave no instruction have disturbed you with their words, unsettling your souls (psukee), it seemed good to us, having become of one mind, to select men to send to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, men who have risked their lives (psukee) for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.” The psukee - life they risked was their earthly life, not a deathless soul.
Š “Certain persons who have gone out from us, though with no instruction from us, have said things to disturb you and have unsettled your minds (psukee)…who has risked their lives (psukee)” New revised Standard Version.
Š “And disturbed you, troubling your minds (psukee) by what they said…men who have risked their lives (psukee) for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ” New International Version.
Š “We have heard that some of our group have come to you and said things that trouble (psukee)… and upset you (psukee)” New Century Version.
A bird's eye view (below) of the way psukee is translated in four versions shows that it is a living being, not an immortal no substance something. The translators wanted to put their immortal soul in the Bible, but they had a problem for if they had uniformly translated psukee into "soul," in some passages their immortal soul would have been subject to death and in other passages it would be dead.
(1) King James (2) New Revised Standard (3) American Standard (4) New International
Matthew 2:20 |(1) LIFE|(2) LIFE |(3) LIFE|(4) LIFE
Matthew 6:25 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Matthew 6:25 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Matthew 10:28 | soul | soul | soul | soul
Matthew 10:28 | soul | soul | soul | soul
Matthew 10:39 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Matthew 10:39 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Matthew 11:29 | souls | souls | souls | souls
Matthew 12:18 | soul | soul | soul | I
Matthew 16:25 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Matthew 16:25 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Matthew 16:26 | soul | LIFE | LIFE | soul
Matthew 16:26 | soul | LIFE | LIFE | soul
Matthew 20:28 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Matthew 22:37 | soul | soul | soul | soul
Matthew 26:38 | soul | I | soul | soul
Mark 3:4 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Mark 8:35 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Mark 8:35 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Mark 8:36 | soul | LIFE | LIFE | soul
Mark 8:37 | soul | LIFE | LIFE | soul
Mark 10:45 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Mark 12:30 | soul | soul | soul | soul
Mark 12:33 | soul | HEART | HEART | HEART
Mark 14:34 | soul | I | soul | soul
Luke 1:46 | soul | soul | soul | soul
Luke 2:35 | soul | soul | soul | soul
Luke 6:9 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Luke 9:24 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Luke 9:24 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Luke 9:56 | LIVES | | | LIFE
Luke 10:27 | soul | soul | soul | soul
Luke 12:19 | soul | soul | soul | MYSELF
Luke 12:19 | soul | soul | soul | LIFE
Luke 12:20 | soul | LIFE | soul | LIFE
Luke 12:22 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Luke 12:23 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Luke 14:26 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Luke 17:33 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Luke 21:19 | soul | souls | souls | YOURSELVES
John 10:11 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
John 10:15 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
John 10:17 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
John 10:24 | US | US | US | US
John 12:25 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
John 12"25 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
John 12:27 | soul | soul | soul | HEART
John 13:37 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
John 13:38 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
John 15:13 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Acts 2:27 | soul | soul | soul | ME
Acts 2:31 | soul | FLESH | FLESH | BODY
Acts 2:41 | souls | PERSONS | souls | .
Acts 2:43 | soul | EVERYONE| soul | EVERYONE
Acts 3:23 | soul | EVERYONE| soul | ANYONE
Acts 4:32 | soul | soul | soul | MIND
Acts 7:14 | souls | ALL | souls | ALL
Acts 14:2 | MINDS | MINDS | souls | MINDS
Acts 14:22 | souls | souls | souls | DISCIPLES
Acts 15:24 | souls | MINDS | souls | MINDS
Acts 15:26 | LIVES | LIVES | LIVES | LIVES
Acts 20:10 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | ALIVE
Acts 20:24 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Acts 27:10 | LIVES | LIVES | LIVES | LIVES
Acts 27:22 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | YOU
Acts 27:37 | souls | PERSONS | souls | US
Romans 2:9 | soul | EVERYONE| soul | BEING
Romans 11:3 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | ME
Romans 13:1 | soul | PERSON | soul | EVERYONE
Romans 16:4 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIVES
1 Cor. 15:45 | soul | BEING | soul | BEING
2 Cor. 1:23 | soul | ME | soul | .
2 Cor. 12:15 | YOU | YOU | souls | YOU
Ephesians 6:6 | HEART | HEAT | HEART | HEART
Philippians 1:27| MIND | MIND | soul | MEN
Philippians 2:30| LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
Colossians 3:23 |HEARTILY|YOURSELVES|HEARTILY|HEART
1 Thess. 2:8 | souls | SELVES | souls | LIVES
1 Thess. 5:23 | soul | soul | soul | soul
Hebrews 4 12 | soul | soul | soul | soul
Hebrews 6:19 | soul | soul | soul | soul
Hebrews 10:38 | soul | soul | soul | I
Hebrews 10:39 | soul | SAVED | soul | SAVED
Hebrews 12:3 | MINDS | HEART | souls | HEART
Hebrews 13:17 | souls | souls | souls | YOU
James 1:21 | souls | souls | souls | YOU
James 5:20 | soul | soul | soul | HIM
1 Peter 1:9 | souls | souls | souls | souls
1 Peter 1:22 | souls | souls | souls | YOURSELVES
1 Peter 2:11 | soul | soul | soul | soul
1 Peter 2:25 | souls | souls | souls | souls
1 Peter 3:20 | souls | PERSONS | souls | PEOPLE
1 Peter 4:19 | souls |THEMSELVES |souls | THEMSELVES
2 Peter 2:8 | soul | soul | soul | soul
2 Peter 2:14 | souls | souls | souls | UNSTABLE
1 John 3:16 | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE | LIFE
1 John 3:16 | LIVES | LIVES | LIVES | LIVES
3 John 2 | soul | soul | soul | soul
Revelation 6:9 | souls | souls | souls | souls
Revelation 8:9 | LIFE |CREATURES| LIFE | CREATURES
Revelation 12:11| LIVES | LIFE | LIFE